2014年6月17日星期二

Ro-ro

ro-ro ships, also known as "open on open" boat, or "roll on roll off" ship, it is dedicated ship carrying cargo freight vehicles, tractor pulling containing a box of goods or other pieces of cargo semi-trailer or wheeled tray directly out of the cargo hold loading and unloading of the transport ship.

ro-ro development evolved on the basis of the car ferry. After World War II, the British had retired landing craft to open up a regular route to Hamburg, Germany, the loading of goods vehicles boarded the shore. Landing craft transport economics is poor, there is no promotional value, but this is the history of transportation with the epoch-making event, thereby creating a new form of marine transport modes - Ro-Ro transport.

from the late 1950s, the United States and Britain since the birth of the container ship, the people in the process of container ships in the ro-ro

not convenient loading and unloading containers, to spend a lot of lifting cargo unit and lifting equipment. It is envisaged that the loading and unloading of containers to freight vehicles directly up and down the container ships, cargo handling from hanging hanged under changed to the horizontal direction of the job. the late 1960s

20 container ship on the basis of some countries has emerged a new ship - ro-ro. In this way, can save a lot of loading and unloading, lifting equipment to simplify loading and unloading procedures, can also make a container ship docked in the general pier does not require large-scale transformation of the port terminal. This container ro-ro, ro-ro ro-ro refers to this container in the modern cargo ships. a ro-ro

the world's first "comet", built by the United States in 1958. Until 1966, Denmark was built as the the Nordic a ro-ro "Su ink Dorset". Nordic region coast tidal range is small, dense road transport network, the use of ro-ro integrated transport system may constitute maritime transport and road transport, ro-ro ships in the Nordic rapid development since 1958 the United States to build a ro-ro boat, more in the Nordic Development application, the world seaborne developed countries also use. The end of the 20th century about half of the worldwide total of ro-ro transport.

ro-ro ships in the application of China's sea routes also many ferry crossings in Yantai - Dalian, Haikou - Zhanjiang, have a wide range of applications.

edit this paragraph construction features special the Summary

ro-ro modeling hull tall deck has several layers. Most of the stem portion equipped with a bulbous central linear straight tail transom, a door or a springboard. Navigation, folding tail springboard standing in the stern, the bridge superstructure set in the stern or bow.

ro-ro cargo hatch, no boom and lifting equipment. Forward Part of living compartment, the rear cabin, the middle of a large warehouse. Several decks connected by a ramp or large lift between them in a large warehouse. Three to 40 meters long ramp, four, five meters wide, and activities, there are also fixed. Its stern high to erect a big springboard after the ship docked, put down the springboard, equipped container freight vehicles drove, open, container handling operations. Ro-ro freight vehicles not only from the rear of the ship and out, also drove to the cabin decks, container handling.

ro-ro ships have multi-deck to facilitate freight unit placed on the deck for a flat plate surface. Each deck has a ramp or lift platform to communicate with each other, for the passage of vehicles. Superstructure arranged to facilitate cargo placed in the bow or stern. The cabin is laid in the tail, placed on both sides of chimneys. The entrances and exits of the ro-ro ships are usually located in the tail, and shore lap with a hinged springboard for roll loading boats up and down. Laden vehicle coming from the end of the main deck open warehouse has been open to the front. the

for Transportation Safety, Ro-Ro has a special anti-shake Sump and other anti-sway device to reduce the rocking of the ship; to manipulate, RoRo has lateral thrusters can rotate in any direction, easy to ship the roundabout. compared

ro-ro ships and other transport ship, ship shape, internal structure, cabin layout and device equipment unique. view

from the shape of the ship

tall ro-ro ship, there are several layers of deck, easy to vehicles carrying containers on the ship. Ro-ro cargo volume utilization is lower than the general cargo vessels, goods to be shipped some weight, you have to increase the ship's length, width, and height. In so general cargo, ro-ro ships than the same tonnage tall.

ro-ro ship's structure and cabin layout view very special, its first with a bulbous central linear straight tail transom. Superstructure arranged to facilitate cargo placed in the bow or stern. The cabin is laid in the tail, chimney placed on both sides of living spaces set in the bow section, midship is a large cargo hold. In order to fit more cargo, living spaces below deck for loading containers. Some

ro-ro cargo hold like a warehouse on land. Multi-deck cargo space, freight traffic from the ramp into the cargo hold, or by a large lift container stacking. In order to make full use of the cargo volume in the ro-ro cargo space activities platform. Peacetime activities of the platform can be turned up close to the side, or rises placed in the upper deck; need moving platform down, cargo space into 2-3 layers. the

edit this paragraph, the advantages and disadvantages of the advantages of ro-ro and container ships, efficient loading and unloading, it is through the vehicle activities loading and unloading containers, up to 1000 to 2000 tons per hour, you can save a lot of loading and unloading labor, reducing the ship docked time, improve ship utilization. The ship fast turnaround and amphibious direct intermodal convenient. And realized the door - the door "delivery unit to the receiving unit to direct transport, reducing transport cargo damage and error process. ro-ro

transport, ship and shore do not need lifting equipment, port equipment poor condition, RoRo high efficiency handling ro-ro than container ships superior place is on the pier does not require lifting equipment, do not need large-scale transformation, expansion of ro-ro

pier additional handling equipment. with greater adaptability

ro-ro ships, which in addition to loading containers, also carrying a special cargo and bulky goods, specialized shipment of steel pipe, steel plate steel ro-ro shipment of railway vehicles specialized rolling stock ro-ro ship, specializing in the shipment of drilling equipment, dedicated ro-ro ships, agricultural machinery can also mix a variety of materials and used for military transport. Thus, RoRo has broad application prospects.

shortcomings ro-ro high center of gravity, stability is poor. The characteristics of the ro-ro ship hull structure is DECKS, generally 2 to 6 layers. No unimpeded access to the cabin of the vehicle, the cargo hold transverse bulkheads, cabin pillars, therefore, less ro-ro structural strength and resistance to sinking. Lined bulkhead less, the impact of the anti-sinking, the strength of the deck are also affected.

editing of this paragraph equipment springboard springboard is the most unique in the ro-ro equipment, the erection of a bridge between the ship and the pier. Springboard mostly set in the stern, set at the bow and side. springboard the form

three: linear springboard, provided along the ship's longitudinal direction, width closer Breadth, the vehicle can be traveling down alternately; swash springboard with the hull center line into a certain angle, is composed of sections springboard; rotation springboard , rotated a certain angle to the sides of the boat can be used in either side of the ship.

loading and unloading trucks loading and unloading trucks in the equipment used to loading and unloading of containers on the ro-ro. Loading and unloading trucks divided into two kinds of trailers and forklifts. The trailer for carrying containers, chassis and frame chassis scales and container consistent. The trailer can be fixed together with the container to a predetermined position in the cargo hold, were arranged vertically to facilitate access. Forklift that can used for the loading and unloading of containers can also be used for the carriage of containers.

lifts, equipment used to loading and unloading of containers on the ro-ro, dedicated to lifting container or lifting vehicles equipped with containers, its scale and containers and trailers, forklift consistent.

Locator locator for fixing container or trailer. The container or trailer equipped with a container in order to avoid a ship rocking movement and collision occurs on the in RoRo cargo hold deck is provided with a locator for the fixed container or trailer. Fixed container locator bolt, spin-lock. The fixed trailer Locator fixed guide plate, tripod, box-shaped bracket and brake chain. In order to reduce the ship rocking, ro-ro ships equipped with anti-rolling tank and anti-sway device. Fitted laterally in order to improve the maneuverability, RoRo pusher, it is a water propeller can be rotated in any direction, can be mounted at the stern, can also be installed in the bow, the RoRo flexible manipulation may be turning on the spot .

edit this paragraph mode of transport for ro-ro ships filled containers or cargo vehicles for the transport unit, the vehicle through the ship door, the tailgate or gangway springboard entered out. Loading, automotive and towing the trailer from the towing vehicle springboard entered the cabin. Arrival at destination, put down the springboard, then the specialized loading vehicles (trailers or forklift) from ship decks drove under the open loading and unloading operations. The vehicles can be run directly to the receiving unit.

in order to make full use of the warehouses, a moving platform in the local area of ​​the warehouse, and usually flips or affixed to the side; need to ship the vehicles, the moving platform down to the warehouse was divided into two, three, in order to fit more vehicles.

Edit this paragraph development direction of ro-ro ships over the past decade has developed rapidly, and by far the world more than two thousand ships. Ro-Ro positive development toward higher speed, loading, better performance. Now ro-ro generally powered by diesel engines, speed in about 20 of more than 25 fast. Ro-ro new power plant can be used in future, faster. Ro-ro loading container ro-ro future in addition to loading containers, can also be loaded oil, ores and other goods, will be more widely uses.

edit this paragraph, fire prevention, fire management measures

1 enhance the fire resistance of the ship's own design. Ro-ro ship design and construction combine to satisfy the anti-sinking and rollover resistance requirements with reference to a garage fire design specifications to divide the fire and smoke partitions, set fire exits and fire prevention space, the installation of an automatic fire-extinguishing facilities and the area of ​​the vehicle, the cabin residential area separated deck passengers and crew on the laying of fire dressings.

2, enhancing vehicle fire facilities equipped and dangerous goods inspection. Port cargo, passenger transport sector to make use of modern instruments and combined with out-of-the-box detection measures on board the vehicle strict security checks, the non loaded with flammable, explosive, poison and other dangerous items and the inherent hazards vehicles on board. Voyage, the ship inspection and testing of all fire-fighting facilities, especially the water spray test to be carried out on the vehicle spaces automatic sprinkler system, ensure effective fire fighting. To prevent overweight vehicles, prohibited articles on board.

3, strengthen the vehicle to shift anti-avoidance measures. Chase compartment vehicle spaces, must be installed longitudinally next door or column, to avoid the vehicle shifted. To take effective measures to secure the vehicle after the vehicle into the car of cabin stowage straighten parking spaces, to prevent the ship encountered storms rocking the vehicle shifted; effectively fixed vehicle cargo should prevent shaking because of the center of gravity is too high ship vehicle rollover occurred, the damage to the fuel tank, causing fuel leakage and possible to form a fire.

4, strengthen fire prevention facilities equipped. Fully serviced in accordance with the relevant norms, standards, automatic sprinkler systems, foam extinguishing system, fire fire hydrant system, fire extinguishers and other fire facilities and equipment. Regularly carry out checks to ensure the adequacy and effectiveness of fire facilities and equipment is operating normally, the number of all types of fire extinguishing agent.

5, implement the responsibility to develop plans to enhance the training. Establish and improve fire safety system, the implementation of the personnel responsible for fire safety at all levels; to develop fire accident disposal plan and carry out a simulated fire-fighting drills; ahead with the fire of knowledge training.

6, to rationalize the system, the implementation of centralized management. Mode reference to the construction industry by the construction sector, unified management, centralized management of other departments, the implementation of the ro-ro ships and other vessels by maritime sector unified management, centralized management mode in other sectors. Such as: fire department inspection, acceptance ship fire facilities, fire safety knowledge training the crew the guiding fire combat exercise on a regular basis, and enhance crew fire expertise to improve the ability of self-help self-defense.

, fire fighting the rescue measures

1, based on self-help. The captain is responsible for organizing the crew in accordance with the fire, the maritime sector under the guidance of "ro-ro fire fighting lifesaving muster list," the division of labor in the fire alarm issue arrived at the designated location within one minute; cabin alarm three minutes to start the fire pump water . The master should order the ship to slow down or stop sailing, timely adjustment of the hull and wind angle between fire fighting needs, try to keep the fire site leeward. To report to the the nearby Fire, Marine, and the higher authorities in a timely manner and keep communication open. Fire the development and security needs, timely organization and passengers, passenger evacuation, depending on the situation after the first rescue, fire fighting, or side rescue edge extinguishing.

2, fire investigation and determination of fire-fighting program. If the car cabin automatic fire extinguishing system can start normally and can fire exterminate, open the door do not blindly rush to clean up the site, to prevent causing a resurgence; cabin automatic fire extinguishing system can not effectively control and extinguish the fire, the captain should promptly organize force the implementation of artificial fire-fighting. Organizations capable staff at least two groups of the fire investigation proved the source of fire, the spread of fire direction and fire trends, develop practical fire fighting programs. Fire investigation and in-depth the the car compartment fire extinguishing personnel to wear personal protective equipment, wear air respirator and lighting communication equipment. In the case of smoke is particularly large impact on fire-fighting operations, should be based on need, as appropriate, to open one or two doors to smoke. For entrance preceded disconnect all power of the cabin, and use of a spray gun cover of gradually close to the source of fire, covering fire fuel tank foam front, cooling with the DC water on the other vehicle's fuel tank, jet bodywork and loading cargo on open flame. Car fuel tank explosion, oil fires to disperse that must cover large areas of the deck foam to extinguish oil fires, use water cannon to extinguish the vehicle contained in the cargo fire. In fire fighting at the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the car bulkhead, especially on one side near the engine room, cooling water cooling as much as possible before the fighting near the cabin and living area near the fire.

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