religious reform movement in Europe in the 16th century, the rise of a reform movement, is known for its extreme domination and oppression against the Church. Its essence is the the bourgeoisie against religious hinder its development and launch of a large-scale anti-feudal social and political movement. Its outbreak began selling indulgences from the Holy See to the British King Henry VIII reform the state religion to reach orgasm, and has had a major impact in the history of Europe, is an inevitable result of the development of capitalism in Europe and also lay the foundation for its further development.
religious reform movement (Reformation)
16 century religious reform in Europe's emerging bourgeoisie banner to launch a large-scale anti-feudal social and political movements. The main opposition Pope control of the country as well as the Jiaoshe corruption in the Catholic Church through the Church.
edit the main cause of this paragraph 1, the economic aspects; the increasingly decadent Catholic hinder the development of capitalism.
2, politically: the Roman Catholic Church inconsistent with European sovereign country and all walks of life.
3, ideological aspects: the rise of the Renaissance humanist thought spread.
4, religion: Catholic Church corruption, Christians called for the revitalization of Christianity.
edit this paragraph background to the late Middle Ages in Europe, the Vatican forces growing church ownership of land, the sale of indulgences, and contact with the secular regime closely they fight each other extremely serious corruption of the Holy See and some priests, all strata of the population is growing dissatisfaction . October 31, 1517, Martin Luther, professor of theology of the University of Wittenberg, Germany, "95 Theses" and criticized the Holy See to the sale of indulgences, directed at the Pope, opened the prelude of religious reform. In 1520, Luther published "ecclesiastical privilege system reform caused the Christian Nobility of Germany open letter urged the Vatican and the church to restore apostolic clean and simple. After the Reformation movement rapidly expand in Europe, and the formation of some factions.
Edit this paragraph Martin Luther: religious reform: the Bible is the supreme authority of the faith, the absolute power to explain the doctrine of the Pope and the Church does not recognize, stressed that believers are justified by faith (salvation), Pope and Atonement volume there was no forgiveness of sins performance, believers can be directly connected with God, not by the church to do the intermediary, the national language, religious ceremonies, simplified form, advocates priest can marriage. Luther's idea was a public upper part of the German princes support. Movement from the reform and development of the Church to become a political movement. The Munzer civilians revolutionaries advocated the use of force to overthrow the existing feudal system, the establishment of no classes and no private property of the Millennium Kingdom, participated in and led the 1524-1525 German peasant war.
1536 France Calvin published "Christian principle" that were saved or not depends on God reservations, advocated the abolition of the episcopacy, and establish a theocratic republic regime in Geneva. British King Henry VIII for a variety of reasons, in 1534 break with the Holy See, "Extreme bill passed by Congress, the announcement of the king as" the only Supreme Head of the Church of England was alive, the right to determine the doctrine and the appointment of clergy, and provides for detachment British Christianity Anglican Catholic. The secular monarch of the Nordic countries, have also to get rid of the Pope control, set their church on their own under control. A direct result of the movement is to produce a Protestant denominations including Lutheran, Gal Zong and Anritsu Anglican three have also published the "Bible" of the various national languages. The Reformation dealt a heavy blow to the feudal system and the Catholic Church, to promote the awakening of the national consciousness and the development of the national language and culture, and cleared the way for the later bourgeois revolution, has a far-reaching impact on all aspects of political, economic and social.
edit this paragraph process and an important figure in Martin Luther Martin Luther (1483-1546) - Back in the ear Eph University (Erfurt) were MA learn half year legal. Then into the monastery penance, 1507
years has been established as a priest. 1512 by the University of Wittenberg (Wittenburg) Theological Seminary Dr., then professor of Bible. He is one of the original Old and New Testament teaching professor first German control in Germany. However, he continued to remain church law to devote themselves to penance, but in any case can not be peace of mind. Until one day when he was studying the "Bible" to see "The just shall live by faith" (Romans 1:17), suddenly awakening to the original person's salvation just because of his faith in God, and the gift of God, all other law to ensure that people can be "justified". This belief he also obtained with the support of some of the professors of the school, plus see people cheated the case of the purchase of indulgences, they heard the bishop simony scandal, he began to attack the church practice of selling indulgences. October 31, 1517, he would have written of the indulgences ninety-five SgForums views posted on the church door of Wittenberg University. Since the day happens to be the people to the church toward the money-worship the relics of Halloween, naturally, a lot of people to see the content of the post. Although when printing soon, but after two weeks spread throughout the whole of Germany; various translations after four weeks spread throughout Western Europe. Pope finally ordered him to get rid of the membership, he was originally part of the Reformed Church system, he began to no longer recognize the authority of the Pope, the only "Bible as authoritative. After sects collectively known as the country he represents "Protestant" or "Protestant (Protestantism), as opposed to the East, Western Catholicism, into the country Catholicism. He direct the establishment of the Church to become Lutheran or Lutheran. Because of his conservative personality, his reform of the church remains the Bible does not expressly prohibit traditional Catholicism, altar, candles, Christ portrait, made Kere, Sunday services and Christmas etc..
Zwingli management Zwingli management (Ulrich Zwingli) (1484 ~ 1531) was born in the Swiss city Wade Hess (Wildhaus), Basel (Basel), Bern (Bern), and Vienna (Vienna) education. Zwingli studying at the Vienna University, the University of Vienna, when the time is pursuing a university reform. Then under the leadership of the humanists mining Ortiz et al, prompting the university to accept a humanist reform. Subsequently, Basel University, he deeply humanistic strengthen his position humanism. District animal husbandry duties in eastern Switzerland, in 1519 became the the Zurich church's pastor. Zwingli language is very capable, he can either Hebrew, Greek or Latin to the local language, translated into Zurich Later, the Zurich City Council decided the reform program of the Bible, to become the official policy. In 1525 the Zurich City Council abolished the Mass, replaced by Zwingli Communion version instead. Proselytizing theme the moral reformer Church, he began to attack indulgences, and a planned attack. In the sacraments, he is more his own ideas: the Lord's Supper is a commemoration of the Lord's ceremony, only symbolic; being Christ is not in communion. This point and Luther are very different.
early in the education reform movement, Zwingli in Ruishi You to the east, has a considerable influence. Killed during the 1531 campaign.
Calvin Calvin (1509-1564) C growth in Paris, studied theology for three years at the University of Paris, and then to the field to learn the law. In 1536, he published the book "Christian principles", and then to Geneva. But his Reformed Church proposal was not accepted, and the deportation as a "heresy". In 1541, support for religious reform faction mastered the regime, Calvin subject to its invitation and then returned to Geneva, be welcomed, and governance of the local church twenty-three years, so that it became the center of the Protestant. Calvin advocated "the first inconclusive", that saved or not is predetermined by God, but do not agree with fatalism; Instead, he thinks the devout faith and perfect virtue is a Christian obligation to be saved, they in the world should work hard to glorify God. The Calvinist doctrine welcomed by many businessmen become the Protestant mainstream, addition of fast Presbyterian develop. Presbyterian republican elected by the parliament, the independent exercise of the judicial power of the Church; require City Council is responsible for the temporal affairs of the church is responsible for the religious beliefs and moral life, but the actual integrated between the two, Calvin actually become theocratic The leaders of the regime. British King Henry VIII,
King of England, Henry VIII (1509-1547) C of the original opposition to Martin Luther and the Protestant after divorce with queen Catherine (Catherine), subject to shut the Roman Emperor, 1534 Protestants cooperation and jointly by the the highest Governance Rights Act "(Act of Supremacy) announced the creation of the Church of England (Anglican Church), also known as the Church of England, and doctrines of Roman Catholicism ceremony no different, just the British king instead of the the Pope became political and religious authority.