2014年6月24日星期二

Mara

Paul Mara,

Jean (Jean-PaulMarat) (1743 - 1793), French statesman, doctor, during the French Revolution democrats revolutionaries. Name

: let · the Paul Mara

Gender: Male

Birthplace: Neuchâtel the State Bu Deli

Nationality: French

the the Occupation: politicians, revolutionaries, doctors

disposable medical politics in 1783, the 1789 revolution After the outbreak of the horse-drawn into battle. He founded the "Friends of the People" newspaper (initially called "the Paris political commentator), to become the mouthpiece of the to support radical democratic measures. Have had several cease publication, published nearly 1000 to September 21, 1792. Mara with amazing perseverance and political persecution, poverty and disease to fight almost solely responsible for copywriting, editing, publishing, etc. All work, known as the "Friends of the People". He lashed the moderate policies of the ruling constitutional monarchists, requires the establishment of a democratic system, to eliminate the disparity between the rich and the poor social conditions, and to oppose the rule of the rich, respect the status of the poor people. Mara is Cordeliers Club and an important member of the Jacobin Club. Popular uprising in Paris in August 10, 1792, he became one of the leaders of the Paris Commune, and subsequently elected as representatives of the National Association. Advocates reform to implement a progressive income tax. First French Republic, "Friends of the People" newspaper was renamed the French Republic reported. His fierce opposition to the rule of the Girondins. In early April 1793, Mara capacity as Chairman of Jacobin headquarters to the National Organization complaint sports General Order, 1793 Girondins delivery of a court trial after being acquitted. After the Jacobins took power in June 1793, Mara stressed the need to establish a revolutionary dictatorship, established freedom to use violence. July 13, 1793 Mara at the Paris apartment by a camouflage the Girondins supporters revolutionaries Charlotte Kedai assassination. Mara's death shocked the whole of France. On July 16, the people of Paris, a solemn funeral was held for Mara, National Association decided to give him honor into the "Pantheon" (Jacobins downfall was to move out). Mara written a large number of political, literary and scientific works, after the death of Series published Mara anthology "," Mara communication set.

edit this paragraph life story born May 24, 1743 in the town of Neuchatel, Switzerland Bude Li a Sardinian immigrant families. He grew up from a high school teacher father received a good education, learning Latin and Greek can speak French, Italian and Spanish, and a more solid grounding in chemistry, medicine, writing and painting.

1759 years after graduating from high school, he has studied medicine in Toulouse, Bordeaux and Paris. British

1765 has studied medicine in London, Newcastle.

1776 years, he received his medical doctorate at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, returned to Paris, and served as a private army doctor king brother Artois Earl (ie, the future king of France, Charles X). Mara belongs to the younger generation by the Enlightenment nurtured and grown up, has a strong desire to explore the science and development of human society. Chronic gonorrhea and eye as a doctor, he is known, has published a number of medical papers on these aspects. He also attempted to conduct research in the natural sciences and philosophy, has published "on the electrical characteristics of the study" papers "," About electrotherapy awards by the Academy of Sciences of Rouen. In 1784 he published a book optical basics; 1785, translation and commentary on Newton optical principle. philosophical aspects in

philosophy, the studies undertaken by the name of reason, he has produced irrational results. In 1773, the anonymously published a treatise "On the human soul", trying to prove the existence of the soul. Published anonymously in 1775 philosophical treatise about "Volumes I and II, claimed physiology can solve the problem of the soul and the body asked to connect. These works have been Voltaire sarcasm and Diderot lukewarm compliment. 1780 "study on the characteristics of the fire, there is no recognition of the Academy of Sciences scholars, especially the famous chemist Lavoisier harsh criticism that it is worthless. Since then, he and advocating science between the Enlightenment had a serious confrontation.

concerned about the political situation in France as well as in medicine and physics research, Mara also very concerned about the political situation in France, by the attention by their own political activities, especially political writings. He has published articles in the "review" of the United Kingdom, London Magazine and Monthly publication. In years 5 months

1774, he published anonymously in the UK, a pamphlet dissect the monarchy political powers nature and lashed the harm the chains of slavery "(book title until 1792," Les Chaines dez, Esclavage " published in France), the historical analysis of the means utilized by the monarchy government and the government had a huge social repercussions, conservatism dominated the British in their country for the first time I saw a revolt and revolution have enjoyed close contact with the theory. This is Mara initial interpretation during the French Revolution, the main idea: either the people or the oppression of people of all political power should be continuous monitoring; freedom may become a reality only if the continuous criticism of political power is subject to the independent newspaper something rather than illusion.

1775 cattle, a Jew loan doctorate in medicine from the University of Edinburgh.

1777 Mara returned to France, has a certain reputation in the European scholars and famous doctors. He soon witnessed the luxury of the feudal nobility and brutality, adds to his hatred of the feudal autocracy. Mara began to study law, and to write a new draft penal code book, won praise. In 1777, Mara published in French criminal legislation plan. This one seems more subversive works: when people attack the social hierarchy, sole legitimacy to exist as a nation to the well-being of all people; confirm the arbitrary nature of the law are still in use, accused of the right to property, works immediately after its publication by the seizure, until in 1783 a book was published again in the the Brissot edited legislators Philosophy Series unobtrusive manner.

medicine politics 1783 Marathi abandoned medical politics.

1789 February Mara "dedicated to the motherland," the pamphlet to clarify his point of view about the Constitution. He believes that only on behalf of the institution of the people, to enjoy the constitution, to amend the constitution to oversee the protection of constitutional rights. As a democratic thinker, Mara Rousseau believers. In his view, the ignorance of the people is the most fundamental conditions of autocracy, jurists and religious deception and hypocrisy, caused by the ignorance of the people. Mara also pointed out: Once the overthrow of the tyrant, had originally opposed the tyrant of people, some people want to implement the equality of each level, while others want to maintain their privileges. Mara and Machiavellian politicians the biggest difference lies in the fact that he is a serious politician.

1789 years after the outbreak of the French Revolution, Mara devote to the revolution torrents. In September of the same year, he founded the "Friends of the People" newspaper to expose the royal family against the revolution traitorous acts of Litongwaiguo, blitzed to the feudal forces and the enemies of the revolution. At the same time, he criticized the policy of compromise of the constitutional monarchists, agitation and called for a popular uprising, was offended by the big bourgeoisie, October, Mara was thrown into prison for a month.

after his release, Mara underground, continue to fight with the big bourgeoisie, suffered another wanted, was forced into exile in London. Soon, they secretly returned to France. Timely publication of the "Friends of the People" newspaper, he hid in the basement, day and night, hungry, stop writing and editing the manuscript. He loudly called for in the newspaper: the poor and the rich are nationals of why the poor should be abused? Mara shouted the voice of the majority of the people of the middle and lower classes, we win the tremendous trust, therefore, people called him "the people Friends of. "

1790 the establishment of the summer, "Human Rights and the Friends of Mara to be the main person in charge. He insisted on defending human rights, adhere to all laws shall be subject to the people for approval, stressed that the principle of the sovereignty of the people, by the people's support. Louis XVI escape was escorted back to the big bourgeoisie still excuse for the king. Mara and Robespierre with stand firmly on the side of the people attacked the treachery of the big bourgeoisie. He cautioned: "Friends of the People" newspaper, fellow citizens, strengthen your strength, increase your vigilance, when a new outbreak of the intifada, the nobles and bishops who do not represent the people out of the National Assembly. Mara persecuted, fled to London again.

elected to the National Society of the September 22, 1792, after the birth of the French First Republic, Mara was elected as representatives of the National Association. Within the National Association of King Louis XVI of intense controversy on whether the trial Mara to come forward, the hue and cry at the meeting: "to save the motherland, the tyrant's head must be cut off." And mercilessly expose and oppose Kyrgyzstan Lent faction compromise policy. Louis XVI was sent to the guillotine, but as a thorn in the Mara but was Girondins. April 13th

1793 years, the National Association Girondins manipulation by a Mara decree submitted to the trial, and trial. Came to the rescue after hearing from all the people of Paris. So, in court, as the defendant's Mara has become a plaintiff. The public, the judges and the President absolve him, Mara was acquitted, and come to the rescue of the people he sent back to the National Association. Since then, Mara is more loved by the masses.

to overthrow the rule of the Girondins, Marathi newspaper once again stated his position: If the elected representatives of the people to abuse the trust of the people, to betray the people's rights and interests, the people should regain their powers, and punish. Mara and several other leaders of the Jacobins together decided that uprising. The evening of June 1. Mara came to the town hall, and went up into the clock tower in person, sounded the alarm. On June 2, the people of Paris, surrounded by the National Association, require the production of the representatives named dismissal. Mara instigating the insurgents say: "Do not show weakness, not to you, and you never leave." Finally, the National Association of cannon threat by the arrest four Ming Jilun Special Representative Act. From Girondins rule was overthrown, Jacobins achieved victory in the struggle, the French Revolution entered a period of Jacobin revolutionary democratic dictatorship.

the Kedai find Mara at this time, no one in Paris knew life in the distant region of Normandy Conn small town of Charlotte Kedai, her 25-year-old in 1793. This woman is about to shock the whole of Paris.

born in the decline of an aristocratic family of Kedai grow up and be educated in the abbey, the character of some lonely outliers, the only friend is a book. In general the girls head full of romantic dreams of Prince Charming age, the Kedai same full lust, the only difference is that her body and mind are dedicated her a special Valentine's fantasy: liberty, equality, fraternity France. From the Revolution began, Kedai radical republicans, But with the revolution a step toward unbridled terror and killing, Kedai disappointment and doubt. Is such a bloodthirsty monster, their own dreams? after

Girondins Mara one-party expelled from the National Association, some of the Members were arrested, as well as part of the escape from Paris, more than 20 people came to Conn, issued a declaration of armed struggle against the Paris. There is a 25-year-old girl, Charlotte Kedai she eagerly listening to speech, from which to find the answer: the misfortune of the Republic, the root cause is that crazy tyrant Mara. She finally made up my mind: go to the other end of monsters to destroy Paris with their own hands!

Kedai arrived in Paris in July 11, 1793. The first and second days, Kedai leave the time spent inquire Mara place and writing on the suicide note of the French people, on the third day morning, Kedai dressed up out of the hotel, the first in a nearby store to buy one knife, hid it in the cloak underneath, and then stopped a cab and went to the door of the horse-drawn. Mara had a serious skin disease, body ulcers, so behind closed doors, almost all day sitting in the bathtub soaking the herb, writing and hospitality here. The Kedai first and second knock on the door, the landlady Mara are wary of cohabitation lover Simone in the door, that day at dusk, when her third knock on the door, still refuse. This time the Kedai do not want to give up, the two sides began to argue, the noise spread the bathroom work Marathi ears, and asked what was the matter. Simone told him, a young woman came from Conn, said Girondins intelligence to him face to face report. "Let her come." Mara said.

moment, Kedai has been standing in front of the horse-drawn. The female members of the public, you want to tell me what are the important intelligence? "Mara asked. "Members of the Girondins came Conn, is four to incite, ready to attack Paris ......" the Kedai try to restrain live voice trembling. "These Girondins traitor! In the end they have a few people?" 18. "" I now need to know their names. "Kiskiskis

the Kedai start a one newspaper name, Mara side side of the pen records sneer said: "a couple of days, they went on the guillotine in Paris." This sentence let Kedai stand up straight, she pulled out a knife, do not hesitate to pierce Mara chest. The knife happened to cut off the carotid artery, the blood, such as Quan, Mara screams spread throughout the whole building. Simone into the bathroom and saw blood gushing all over the place, Mara has been dying shouted: "Help me, my dear friend!" Died. Charlotte the Kedai no escape, and so was arrested at the scene. The trial of the Revolutionary Court, Kedai claimed that killing the Mara is she acting alone. Her fearless respondent, so few: Q: "Why do you want to assassinate Mara?" Answer: "In order to quell the riots in France." Asked: "This thing that you plan a long time it?" Answer: " national representatives were executed May 31, I had such an intention. "asked:" So you are the newspaper know Mara is an anarchist? "A:" Yes, I know he disrupt France ...... "Then, she like Robespierre to be executed Louis XVI, King said, and cried:" I in order to save hundreds of thousands of people to kill a person, I have to save the innocent kill wicked, in order to make my country tranquility and kill a beast, before the revolution, I republicans, I never energetic, fearless. "July 17, 1793, Charlotte Kedai sent on the guillotine. Mara's dead

Charlotte Kedai and Jean Paul Mara

shocked the whole of France. On July 16, the people of Paris, held a grand funeral for him. Patriots around the casting medals, built Mara tomb, pinned his grief. National Association passed a resolution given the honorary of Mara into Paris sages word interment.

Mara's life is closely linked with the French Revolution. He start to finish to stand in the forefront of the struggle. His political savvy sensitive radical perspective, unique insights, and uncompromising. From this point of view, he is worthy of a loyal revolutionaries. Mara also has a strong incitement force, drew much loved, very high status in the eyes of the people, and also a place in the government, so it is also a successful politician. However, Mara is a revenge the very heart of the people, jealous and cruel to kill a lot of political opponents and even revolutionaries. Scientist, he was a failure in the lifetime support "phlogiston theory" outdated theories, and later has been criticism of the great chemist Lavoisier hate him, and ultimately lead to some extent he was executed. This is Mara's life tainted.

edit this paragraph Mara "Friends of the People" reported that the French Revolution began the Louis XV era of French Enlightenment thinkers set off continuing the fight for newspapers and freedom of movement, English poet John Milton in 1644 advocated free newspapers of defense, as well as the 1776 Virginia declared newspapers and freedom of action, inspired French newspapers freely owner. 5 July 1788 to the Kingdom of France Administrative Court resolution give the newspaper a de facto freedom. Thereafter until July 1789, all strata of French society to uphold the freedom of newspapers, mainly within the framework of the resolution through brochures and petition to express their demands. Most of the French bourgeoisie strong support of newspapers and freedom, they want to completely abolish censorship. 1789, for newspapers and the freedom of the trend is extremely violent, the crumbling of the old system has been unable to resist.

French Revolution is a the Mara scientific research career end and the beginning of his political career, is the three convening of the meeting so that he believes that they can play their due role. Although he met many difficulties: his booklet "dedicated to the motherland" published by the authorities prohibited. He denounced the night of August 4, hypocrisy article to decree the abolition of the feudal system, nor a printers courage to accept, but he did not lose heart. Newspapers and free social environment, he tried to be like other contemporary politicians, the founder of a newspaper, so that people hear his voice. He founded the first newspaper "patriot" (August 11), introduced to the people in Parliament to discuss the Constitution. But the newspaper published only one that died at birth. After several attempts and efforts, Mara has obtained the consent of the authorities, and finally his revolutionary news reporter's career really started in early September. Mara famous newspaper was born on September 12, 1789. This is an 8 publications, was called the Paris political commentator, 6 (September 16), only the legendary name of "Friends of the People" (Amidu peuple), and Rousseau famously "dedicated to the life of truth" as the inscription. Mara is the only designers and editors of this newspaper.

"Friends of the People" become Paris's most famous newspaper but that also makes Mara strongly advocating revolution of the "Friends of the People", and criticized current affairs sharp Bifeng and harsh language, soon to become Paris's most famous newspaper; prosecuted and persecuted by the authorities powerless in the face in the 1789-1792 period, resulting in the publication of the "Friends of the People," was interrupted many times. Until September 1792. Mara was elected Members of the National Association, was able to continuously published newspaper. Before and after Mara was assassinated on July 13, 1793, published a total of more than 900. "Friends of the People" from the outset as a fierce polemic newspaper, a propaganda tool of the revolutionaries boarded the political stage of the Revolution. Mara is an important representative of many professional revolutionaries during the French Revolution, as a newspaper editor, he newspapers with their own treated as the same. After October 16, 1789, article published by the "Friends of the People" and signed Mara - "Friends of the People", which is a special status of self-forging Mara for his revolutionary activities. Mara claiming to be a professional revolutionaries should have three roles: whistleblowers, teachers and revolutionary activists; to his newspaper, he also specified the triple function: expose the counter-revolutionary and educate the people to cultivate the citizens and revolutionaries to promote people to carry out the revolution. "Friends of the People" is exactly in line with the three functions. The Mara show that in 13 of the "Friends of the People" interim themselves as news reporters a clear purpose: to fight with the enemies of the state, I will mercilessly attack a liar, I expose the hypocrisy and expose the traitor, I will be in the public affairs exclusion through false enthusiasm, weak and stupid, incompetent service motherland, speculative greed of the people, the motherland must not be suspicious any trust. No matter how harsh my pen, only so evil and thugs intimidating, it is respect for the truth. 1791 letter addressed to Camille de Mulan, Mara stressed the "Friends of the People", is also his own role in the Revolution: "destined to train the rights of citizens, inspired by the desire for them to enjoy the right to, and inspired they defend their own rights and boldly for the right to revenge; it is destined to make they learn to obey the just and wise laws, and resist unjust and arbitrary laws; it is destined to make the treacherous intentions of the army learn to identify the officers, contempt imperious command to lay down their weapons, ordered them to massacre citizens when they reported the threat to sneer} it is destined to smash all the forces of despotism, until the power to establish justice above; sad victim freed from oppression , until the freedom of triumphant victory., this is I have been engaged in the activities, I am sure I did not waste time

"Friends of the People" published articles are usually quite long, are written in the style of the study of political or social analysis of each of the "Friends of the People", Mara inserted many letters from readers or communication, these letters considered by researchers to be handed down during the Revolution, one of the most peculiar literature. These letters have played an important role in the mission of the "Friends of the People" to educate the people, after Mara's processing polish, along with those who signed the letter combination and the "Friends of the People" as a whole. The news of the "Friends of the People" is mainly related to the Parliament's deliberations and the day-to-day problems, especially the problem of food supply in Paris. Two parallel is an eternal theme of the "Friends of the People". They are an important part of the Mara revolutionary pedagogy, because they have to educate the people and the vigilance of the people function. "Friends of the People" stand in the position of vulnerable groups, reported that the suffering of the people's lives, put forward the proposition to safeguard the interests of the people, has played the role of "the mouthpiece of the people. He said: "Where are those who do not have any property, not the pursuit of any positions not get any benefit from the social contract motherland everywhere they were sentenced to hard labor, they are not under the yoke of the masters, is in the shackles of their compatriots being; matter what kind of revolution is coming. slavery, poverty, oppression their eternal destiny. then they may just strengthen their suffering. chains countries owed what to wear them? they only owe under the hate and curse. "At the same time, of government have an instinctive pessimism, fear, either as free news reporters or elected as a Member, Mara, Mara are always stick to their attitude and position. He would never satisfied with the Revolution has been achieved, almost every issue of the "Friends of the People" published articles criticizing current affairs, accusing the legal creation of goals with specific consequences caused by the legal gap. He repeatedly warned the people, Parliament has taken measures just to the interests of the oligarchy, the actual situation of the evidence that the lower classes tragic. He attacked the parliament announced a brilliant principle, but did not care about its specific implementation. Deprived of the the passive citizens the right to vote, from the Constituent Assembly of the Legislative Assembly and the King's tugging back and forth, to June 2, 1793, ultra-righteous cleaning Girondins before the National Association of the negative attitude of the revolution, had been his fierce criticism. Mara also frequently criticized the government's policies and measures at the same time, came to light within the revolutionary camp "enemies of the state". His important role for Parliament revolutionaries almost all have a deep distrust, doubt the motives of their words and deeds, has been "singled out by the national summit, almost always only going for the nation forging chains" that "cleaning Parliament is a way to save the country. " "Friends of the People" has to attack Neikelabo and Lafayette, also criticized the people trying to stop the pace of the revolution. Especially in the struggle against the Girondins in the spring of 1793, Mara Republic pain, tense internal situation and catastrophic external situation, accusing the guitar by the mission of waging war can not make war victory, accusing it of the implementation of the "annexation" policy, accusing it of letting inflation, and the people to the abyss of suffering. He opposed the revolution indefinitely radical people scold even more acerbic than advocates condemned the old system. Until the expulsion of the Girondins, Marathi real mountain partisan control of the National Association together. expression of political ideology of political ideology Mara

Mara expressed in the "Friends of the People" in the "Friends of the People" can be summed up in a few main points: first, the establishment of the government of the necessity of the people above the sole. is the most effective support for radical revolution. Mara Rousseauism., He was convinced that the collective guarantee of virtue; for the interests of the people to resort to violence is also reasonable. Second, the contact with the opposition between the disadvantaged and its rulers, is closely linked with their divergent interests; not reconcile this conflict of interest can not be solved only by the people of the ruler of the eternal constant supervision, especially to be limited by an independent, public newspapers criticized. Third. Noted that the relative legal. In his view, regardless of the origin and legitimacy of the law, in the case of elite betrayal, way out of the people can only be by means of violence, to resort to the uprising: to reinvent the wheel, start again. These views Mara thought the strongest, most active thing, it makes Mara indisputably become a permanent departure from the principle of the creation of government action may

and critics. Admittedly, Mara is both a political idealist, but also a political pessimist, and thus was out of tune with the vast majority of revolutionaries. His sympathy for the vulnerable groups and hatred, oppression forces him to produce a very strong world-weary emotion, and promote unjust society can not be suppressed indignation he let it all out in the text. the revolutionary pedagogy

Mara aims to tell the people means that they cheated on their trick. In particular, is to educate them to recognize their own way out: the people should take advantage of their right to refuse to law deceptive and government agencies to resist evil. Mara text book is full of violence, that is natural. "Friends of the People", a large number of reservations the Mara call to use violence to clear the call of the enemies of the revolution, including the appalling torture and cut off limbs and other means. One of the most extreme is attempted the next day in the Louis XVI fled, Mara cries of "Friends of the People": "Now is scored ministers and their lackeys, all the bad officials and treason officer, all counter-revolutionary town officials, the head of National Assembly of all traitors. September 1792 massacre, Mara violent speech is also a step by step upgrade, from the requirements and cut down 40 000 to 270 000 head has been on the rise, trying to to exchange for social stability and success of the revolution, Mara will also establish a strong government and even the rule of the dictator as advancing a magic weapon of the revolution, he often called on to establish the dictatorship of the "Friends of the People" most famous articles published in 177 (1790), 497 (June 22, 1791) and 542 (August 1791 30E1), his continuous requirement to establish Military Tribunal, elected leader of a discretionary or military officer to rule after the Republic was established in September 1792, Mara requiring the appointment of a wise, is

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