Karst (KARST) that karst geological water to chemical dissolution of soluble rocks (carbonates, gypsum, rock salt, etc.), supplemented by the mechanical action of water erosion, scour and collapse, and a general phenomenon arising from these effects. Caused by karst role landform known as karst (karst topography). the Karst,
The "Karst" (Karst) was originally the place names of the limestone plateau Yugoslavia northwestern Istria peninsula, meaning the place of bare rock. Where the developmental Malaysia Gunung Mulu sword like Shilin (turion)
the the typical karst landform. Said on behalf of the term "karst" is the karst topography. China is the account of karst phenomena and study of the earliest countries in the world, that is documented as early as the Jin Dynasty, especially Ming Xu Hongzu (1586 to 1641) book, "Xu Travels" describes the most detailed. Geographic distribution of karst landforms are distributed around the world 
soluble rock area. Soluble rock three categories: (1) carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite, marl, etc.). ② sulfate rocks (gypsum, anhydrite, and Glauber's salt). ③ a halogen salts rock (potassium, sodium, magnesium salt rock, etc.). The China Karst maps
total area of 51 × 106 square kilometers, accounting for 10% of the total area of the earth. From the mainland to the island from tropical to frigid karst landform development. The more famous regions of China, Guangxi, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces (regions), northern Vietnam, Yugoslavia Di grams Alps, Italy and Austria at the junction of the Alps, the Massif Central of France, Russia's Ural Mountains, southern Australia, the United States, Kentucky and Indiana State, Cuba and Jamaica. China karst distribution area. Mainly distributed in carbonate rocks outcrop areas, an area of about 91 to 130 million square kilometers. The area occupied by the eastern part of Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan, is one of the world's largest Karst Region; Tibet and northern region distribution. 
edit this paragraph landform types Introduction Karst can be divided into many different types. The outcrop conditions is divided into: bare karst, coverage karst karst
,, buried type karst. Climate zone is divided into: karst tropical and subtropical karst temperate karst boreal karst arid zone karst. Divided into according to lithology: limestone karst dolomite karst, gypsum karst and salt karst. scenery (14) in
In addition, the altitude, the degree of development, hydrological characteristics, formation period different division. Resulting into by other different morphology similar to the phenomenon of karst, collectively referred to as karst, including debris karst, loess and clay Karst, hot melt of Karst and volcanic lava Karst. They are not constituted by soluble rock differs in essence from the karst. The many grooves called
the surface karst form of solution groove and stone the bud surface water along the rock surface flow, corrosion, erosion formed dissolved ditch. Prominent part of solution groove called Stone bud. Stone Forest: This is a tall stone shoot up to 20-30 meters, clouds, such as the forest, it is referred to the Stone Forest. It is a high purity limestone thickness, level level formed in the tropical rainy conditions. the
fengcong, peaks and buttes fengcong and peaks limestone suffered intense dissolution peaks aggregates. A which fengcong is the pinnacle of the bottom of the base to sit connected the peaks by fengcong further to the depths of the dissolution, evolution. Koho karst region isolated limestone peaks, located in the karst basin.
dissolved bucket and karst depression solution bucket karst area of ground round or oval depressions, karst depression surrounded by low mountains, hills and peaks surrounded by closed depressions. If dissolved fighting and karst depression at the bottom of the channel is blocked, the water into the pond, large form karst lake. the
underground karst cave landscape (20)
sinkholes, dry valleys and blind valley sinkholes karst area of surface water flow channel to the underground or underground caverns, karst vertical water on Crack dissolution and collapse with. Sinkholes in the river, the Department of the river will often import underground rivers drying up a dry valley or blind valley. 
the of underground karst morphology cave: cave, also known as cave, it is the groundwater along the level of soluble rocks, joints or faults, corrosion and erosion and the formation of the underground tunnel. Karst morphology in the cave of stalactites, stalagmites, stone pillars, Shiman, travertine and tufa.
edit the causes of modern karst after the Yanshan movement developed on the basis of the peneplain. The the old Tertiary karst
, South has a tropical climate, the peaks begin to develop; North China compared to the subtropical climate, Jinzhong Mountain and Taihang southern section of the watershed region so far also left behind the gentle hill depressions landforms. But when the Yangtze River north and south-desert is region of karst weak. Neogene monsoon climate formation, laid the basis of modern karst zone, South China maintained a hot and humid climate, Huazhong become wet, strong karst turning. Especially since the Quaternary, the crust rising rapidly, along with the rapid development of the karst landscape, complex and diverse types. With glacial and interglacial alternation climate with frequent changes, but in the alternating changes in climate with gradually southward characteristics, Tropical peaks of the northern boundary of the South Ridge, Miaoling line of latitude 25 ° in Hunan Road County 40 '. About latitude 26 ° in Guizhou. 3 ~ 4 north latitude, compared to today's tropical boundaries
this line visible peaks of the northern boundary is not formed in the modern climate conditions. Temperature and rainfall of eastern China Although the northward gradient, but it the Karst zonal differences is very obvious. This is because of the impact of glacial and interglacial climate, temperature and rainfall interglacial high favor karst. Glacial cold drier, strongly inhibited the development of karst. But more to the tropical its impact is smaller. The peaks can be intermittent and development conditions in the area of tropical peaks, maintaining, increasing the impact from central China to the northeast, northward rapidly reduce the intensity of the karst role, so that the type of significant changes. The majority of the northwest region since the Tertiary in dry weather conditions, it is hardly developed in karst regions.
Edit this paragraph wide distribution of China China karst type as much, is rare in the world. Is widely distributed in China, as the material basis for development of karst landscape the ─ ─ carbonate rocks (such as limestone, dolomite, gypsum and rock salt, etc.). According to incomplete statistics, the total area of karst
up to 2 million square km, which bare carbonate rock area of about 1.3 million square kilometers of the country's total area about 1/7; buried carbonate rock area of about 700,000 square kilometers. Carbonate rocks are distributed in the provinces and regions, the most widely distributed but the eastern region of Guangxi and Guizhou and Yunnan. Western Hunan and Hubei Province, eastern Sichuan, Shandong, Shanxi, the area is also a wider distribution of carbonate rocks.
Chinese modern karst after the Yanshan movement developed on the basis of the peneplain. The Tertiary South China tropical climate, peaks begin to develop; North China compared to the subtropical climate, has also left behind with the the gentle hill depressions landforms in Jinzhong Mountain and Taihang the southern section of the watershed areas. But when the Yangtze River north and south-desert is region of karst weak. Neogene monsoon climate formation, laid the basis of modern karst zone, South China maintained a hot and humid climate, Huazhong become wet, strong karst turning. Especially since the Quaternary, the crust rising rapidly, along with the rapid development of the karst landscape, complex and diverse types. Alternate with glacial and interglacial climate with frequent changes, but with a gradual southward characteristics in alternating changes in climate, Tropical peaks of the northern boundary of the South Ridge, Tony?? 26 °. This line to 3 to 4 north latitude, representing the modern tropical boundaries visible peaks of the northern boundary is not formed in the modern climate conditions. Temperature and rainfall of eastern China Although the northward gradient, but it the Karst zonal differences is very obvious. This is because of the impact of glacial and interglacial climate, temperature and rainfall interglacial high favor karst. Glacial cold drier, strongly inhibited the development of karst. But more to the tropical its impact is smaller. The peaks can be intermittent and development conditions in the area of tropical peaks, maintaining, increasing the impact from central China to the northeast, northward rapidly reduce the intensity of the karst role, so that the type of significant changes. The majority of the northwest region since the Tertiary in dry weather conditions, it is hardly developed in karst regions. 
edit this paragraph Strip features eastern China karst was latitude zonal distribution, from south to north as tropical karst subtropical karst and temperate karst. Western China due to the impact of water restrictions or terrain is arid areas of karst (Northwest) and chilling plateau karst (Tibetan Plateau).
tropical karst peaks - depressions for represent
located in Guangxi, western Guangdong, eastern Yunnan Qiannanyou. Many underground caves, dissolution vaulted cave. More underground river's tributaries, drainage area, it said groundwater systems, the average drainage area of 160 square kilometers, the biggest land the Soviet underground river basin area the karst
up to 1000 square kilometers. Development of many surface depressions fengcong regional average of 2.5 per square kilometer, depressions spaced 100 to 300 meters, is the terrain is divided crushing, showing peaks a swale landforms. The peaks of the slope is very steep, typically greater than 45 degrees. The Fenglin can be divided into the Koho, sparse and fengcong type, the Qifeng caves is a typical tropical karst features.
tropical marine coral reefs is the youngest of carbonate rocks, mostly formed in the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Above the sea, just a few meters to 10 meters, the development of a large cave and Tianshengqiao littoral dissolution Cliff solution groove stone shoot, constitute Keys coral reefs multi dissolved pores landscape. gentle hill -
subtropical karst depressions is representative of
distribution in the south of the Qinling Huaihe line. The underground river more than tropical short, the average drainage area is less than 60 square kilometers. Depressions less per square kilometer, is only about a and reduce from south to north, and contrast, the proportion of dry valleys are increasing rapidly. Positive terrain is not very typical bread-like hills, its slope is generally about 25 degrees, the cave quantity compared tropical greatly reduced, mostly corroded fissure cave in southern subtropical karst dissolution vaulted cave more. Karst Mountain Dry Valley,
temperate karst the representatives
underground caves although developmental generally fissure cave, its smaller. Karst springs more prominent, and generally have a larger catchment area and the larger flow, such as Baotu Spring and Niangziguan, springs, etc.. This with very little in depressions, many dry valleys. The karst
positive terrain with mountain similar, except for the top of the hill there are remnants of ancient subtropical development of gentle hill - depressions gentle mound - Dry Valleys landscape. Strongly incised river in the formation of the canyon, in some areas, such as Juma cross-strait class peak forest landform. karst phenomena,
arid regions weak developmental
and only slight traces of corrosion in a few limestone fissures, some fissures calcite filled underground caverns rarely not constitute leakage and unstable foundation factors.
chilling the plateau karst
Qinghai-Tibet Plateau the karst in periglacial freeze-thaw weathering intense, distinctive karst landscape, the freeze-thaw stone mound, wall, its lower coverage periglacial formed debris slope. Developed in shallow caves in the hillside, you can still see some piercing. Occasional depressions.
Edit this paragraph development and utilization of surface anomalies karst areas dry and floods, a great impact on agricultural production. But groundwater rich runoff coefficient of 50 to 80% in the tropical karst area. The the subtropical karst region of 30 to 40%, and the temperate zone of 10 to 20%. Groundwater in the piedmont way to spring in northern China some the karst
Limestone region outflow, such as Beijing Yuquan Mountain spring water, Henan Huixian Baiquan Jinci spring, Shanxi Taiyuan, Jinan Baotu etc.. Rational development and utilization of karst springs of great significance for the development of industry and agriculture. Multi underground river in the south, cited the karst springs plugging the underground river, drilling mention water and other ways to solve the industrial and agricultural water. Underground river longitudinal section ladder-like, rich hydropower resources, can damming generation. Clouds Southern Hills North the Rokuro-hole Hydropower Station is a underground river hydropower stations in China. Hunan, Guizhou, take advantage of this superior conditions for the construction of underground hydropower station more than 400 kilowatts. Underground caves of the Karst region, often caused by reservoir leakage, constitute a destabilizing factor on the dam, communication lines and factories, mines and construction. Research and distribution of the detection of underground caves, take timely measures, the key to building successful karst areas. The Karst region has rich deposits, such as limestone, dolomite, marble, gypsum and rock salt, etc.. Deposited in karst erosion surface and depressions bauxite, ancient cave and a rift within the loot in the deposition of lead, zinc sulfide, mercury placer, underground caverns good place rich in oil and gas, some of the North China The oil field is located in the Karst region. Some caverns for underground site and underground warehouse. the
Edit this paragraph attractions karst multi reincarnation and zonal characteristics, forming a distinctive mix of karst geomorphological scene
the Semiotic (40)
concept and intricate cave wonders in China tourism resources. Guilin landscape (see Guilin), Lunan Stone Forest), Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan (see Jiuzhaigou Natural Scenic Area), Guizhou Huangguoshu (see Huangguoshu waterfall), of Jinan the Baotu and Beijing near Juma have become famous tourist attraction. Edit this paragraph news South China Karst
, karst karst landforms,
is developed in limestone and dolomite carbonate based on the landscape. China Karst large, diverse landforms typical rich biological and ecological characteristics. area of the South China Karst "
" accounted for 55% of China karst area, is the only project of the Chinese government in 2006 to declare World
sector natural heritage, by Stone Forest in Yunnan, sword-shaped, columnar and tower karst, Guizhou Libo Forest Karst, Chongqing Wulong Tianshengqiao to sew the days hole for representatives of three-dimensional karst composed to form more than 50 million years to 300 million years, with a total area of 1460 square kilometers, including the nominated area of 480 square feet (core area) km buffer area of 980 square kilometers. This area has focused on China's most typical karst topography region, many attractions reputation at home and abroad: Yunnan Stone Forest "male, odd, dangerous, show, quiet, Austria, Kuang," said, "World Karst essence "; Libo, Guizhou Buyi, Shui, Miao and Yao ethnic minorities gather, appeared in the" China's most beautiful Ten forest.
"South China Karst" in the world of geology, geomorphology, bio-ecological, aesthetic, ethnic and cultural value (outstanding universal value) has long been a wide range of domestic and international attention and recognition. "South China Karst" declared natural heritage has been the support of the Chinese government and the World Conservation Union. the
most complex karst region - Liupanshui (17)
in accordance with the provisions of the World Heritage Committee, the series returns heritage can be phased reporting, more than one candidate for the South China Karst, after full argument finalized the first declared three patches: Libo Karst, Guizhou, Yunnan Shilin Karst and Wulong Karst. First, they are overall "outstanding universal value"; Second, the best representatives of their respective "South China Karst" type
; diversity of third, "South China Karst" unified contiguous regions form a unique karst , performance plateau Shilin (Stone Forest in Yunnan); highland and lowland transition zone Karst peak cluster (Libo, Guizhou); deep gorge of the Yangtze River in northern karst (Wulong). Their combination represents the first batch of "South China Karst" declared land features. South China Karst
"" is the first inter-provincial joint project of the World Natural Heritage, experienced long periods of geological time, is an important and typical Earth natural geographical features and karst topography, both retained the geological history Gukasite ruins, and they represent an important and ongoing process of karst. Affected by uplift and other evolution since the "South China Karst" has complete formation of a tropical, subtropical karst rise structural system and the evolution sequence of developmental areas and research the modern regional hydrological network, and the formation of the Three Gorges are providing a valuable geomorphic evidence, is rare in the world. If included in the "World Heritage List", will promote the ecological protection of the relevant geographic and travel upgrades.
World Heritage Project glimpse
45 projects from 39 countries applied for inclusion in the World Heritage List during the 31st session of Christchurch, New Zealand World Heritage Conference, some of the project is a world-renowned tourist attractions. World Natural Heritage
in reporting projects submitted for consideration, the 11 projects, 32 projects declared world cultural heritage, the two projects declared World Cultural and Natural Heritage, from 21 countries, members of the Committee will be held on the 26th and the 27th by-clause examination each reporting project.
Sydney Opera House in Australia to declare the project. The Opera House is located in Sydney Harbour will Lilang angle, its unique sail shape and near the Harbour Bridge side by side, is one of the most characteristic buildings of the 20th century. The Opera House is composed of two main halls, some small theater, performance hall and other ancillary facilities. The largest hall, which is the main concert hall, can accommodate about 2,500 people, Chamber organ is allegedly the world's largest mechanical wood chain lever organ, is composed of more than 10,000 root duct.
India Red Fort - the world-renowned ancient Islamic culture building spots declared world cultural heritage. Red Fort to sit
fell on the old city northeast of Delhi, the west bank of the Yamuna, is rumored to be the fifth Mughal king Shah Khan, to commemorate his beloved wife, the Taj Mahal was built, to begin in 1638 , which lasted nearly 10 years to build, is India's largest palace. The Red Fort is a magnificent palace ocher soongorica Shi Jiancheng group, irregular octagon, 915 meters long from north to south, from east to west and 548 meters wide, 34 meters high. The castle is erected on a small tower with white marble sculpture, mosaic gold, diamonds and precious stones. Peacock Block "original a world-famous building, made of 110,000 grams of gold, inlaid with diamonds, emeralds and other precious stones, stairs to the silver casting. Throne has now ceased to exist throne above the wall left when Shah Khan, the king ordered the carving of the Persian verse: "If the world is heaven, it is here." World Natural Heritage of Korea nomination volcanic island of Jeju. Jeju Volcanic Island area of 1845 square kilometers, the island stands the highest peak in South Korea - an altitude of 1950 meters Halla Mountain. This volcanic cone left by the 1007 volcanic eruption the Jeju extraordinarily Magnificent. A typical crater of Mount Halla weeks is about 2000 meters, gathered around 400 kinds of temperate plants, has high academic value.
ancient city of Corfu, Greece declared world cultural heritage. Corfu is located in western Greece, the Ionian Sea, the second largest island of the Ionian Islands, Island east coast of Corfu city retains the medieval Venetian built two minarets Castle.
edit this paragraph geomorphic regions in Vietnam Halong Bay to the Gulf in densely distributed 1,969 seat limestone islands, standing in the sea, spectacular. Each island are covered with dense jungle vegetation. Some of the islands have a huge cave. The stakes Cave is the largest cave of Halong Bay area. The end of the 19th century, the French tourists to this tour, named after the hole Grotte des Merveilles. 3 large space, including numerous stalactites and stalagmites (as well as 19th century French graffiti). There are two larger islands, Tuan, Chau and Cat Ba, permanent residents. There have tourist facilities, including hotels and beaches. The island has numerous amazing beaches. flowing fishing village, fishermen
some of them on the island, and they work hard in this shallow water, to capture the 200 species of fish and 450 species of mollusks. Many islands named is explained due to the special shape of them, such as elephants, pugnacious rooster roof. 989 have been named in these islands. Bantams, antelopes, monkeys and iguanas and birds and animals live on these islands. Dec. 17
1994 years in the 18th meeting of the World Heritage Committee of Thailand, Ha Long Bay was listed as World Heritage. To become one of Vietnam's most popular tourist attractions.
local legend said a long time ago, the Vietnamese resistance to the Chinese invasion, God sent a dragon's family to help guard the land. Long family suddenly attacked today Halong Bay (Halong Bay hence the name), began to spit out the gems and jade. These jewels turned into small islands scattered in the Gulf, and interconnected to form a resistance to the invaders barrier. People to defend the freedom of this land, and later formed the Vietnamese State.
in history has occurred many times in Halong Bay, Vietnam revolt powerful neighbor naval battle. Worked in the war, the Vietnamese army labyrinth of waterways between the islands, to prevent the enemy landing. In 1288, General Tran Hung Dao prevented the Mongolian fleet. fairway between the many islands by the U.S. Navy
during the Vietnam War, a large number of Brescia, in some places still threaten navigation.
Vietnam Halong Bay (6)
Belize Great Blue Hole Belize Great Blue Hole appearance is circular with a diameter of about 1,000 blink 304 meters), a depth of about 400 blink 122 meters). The Great Blue Hole is a limestone cave formed in the sea level, the lower the Ice Age, and later because of rising sea water, and the roof collapse followed, then turned into underwater caves. Today's Great Blue Hole is a fame of the diving resort, world famous scuba diving expert Jacob - Yves Cousteau (Jacques-Yves Cousteau) Great Blue Hole rated as one of the world's top ten diving treasure and mining surveying and mapping in 1971. Great Blue Hole,
Guangxi, Guilin is located in the southwest of Nanling Mountains, with an average altitude of 150 meters, is a typical karst karst landform, limestone throughout the city hundreds of millions of years of weathering and erosion formed Shiqianfeng Central legislation Baocheng, a water hole rocks the unique landscape of the United States, the world reputation for Semiotic. The most representative attractions: Elephant Trunk Hill, Fubo Nanxishan Yaoshan, Solitary Beauty Peak, Seven Star Crags, Reed Flute Cave, Zengpiyan kwan'am, Ming Dynasty, King City, Banyan Lake, Cedar Lake, etc.. We said the most exciting period of Lijiang River in Yangshuo territory, Guilin other counties there are countless beauty waiting for us to go to browse, Longji terrace, Xing'an Lingqu MAOERSHAN Zijiang rafting, five rows River rafting, Ba Jiaozhai, Baoding Waterfall will bring you more surprise.
the Guilin (five)
Yixing Shanjuan hole Shanjuan Cave is famous the limestone dissolved Qidong, Yixing "three odd" first. Located in Yixing City, about 25 kilometers southwest of the village Zhu Ling Lo rocky area of approximately 5,000 square meters, about 800 meters long, four holes in the the full hole points on the middle and lower, interlinked tunnel singular. The most surprising is the next hole and water tunnel. Water tunnel is 120 meters long, the number of visitors to the cave boating for pleasure. Into the hole, is like entering an underground palace. Entrance in the middle hole. Cave Lion as large field is an area of 1000 square meters the natural boulder Hall, the stalactites shoots up to 7 meters, towering hole, the name of the pillar peak.
legend when Yu Shun, Shun want the world the Abdication to leaders of the Shanjuan Mr. good volume Covert in this cave named. At the entrance to the hole, hall lion as large field. Cloud hole on hole name, such as shells, all day, clouds and hazy, hence the name "cloud field. The cave temperature is maintained at 23 degrees Celsius all year round, warm in winter and cool in summer. The ring wall stalactite drops trickle together into a pool Tam, "Wa Huang pool" and "Pangu pool". On the hole is long and narrow, with waterfalls flowing water, hence the name "waterfall hole". Along the stone steps through "waves doors", "wind and thunder door", "scat door can taste smell fine Tao gurgling sound, gradually Fenglei hidden silent, then scat gongs sound, and finally Boston. Water Cave, also known as the Dragon Cave, after the hole. A hillside underground river, 120 meters long, six meters at its widest point, the most in-depth of 4.5 m, the surface of the water from the top two meters. The boat people from the "gully heart", passing through the "water off" ground Ao door "Sanwan, boats in the water tunnel line, everywhere hanging lanterns, just like in the Dragon Palace tour. Do at the water tunnel, Dunjue suddenly see the light ", ashore, creeks along the shade line, such as into the Land of Peach Blossoms. Good volume hole southwest, Bi fresh Um, reading at the the Eastern Jin Shangyu woman Lovers. Um next the Lovers Qin Jian House, and Yingtai Court. Has now completed an antique garden, built pavilions, chisel pond, opened in 1992. located about 25 km southwest of Yixing in
the village Zhu Ling Lo rocky, according to legend, 4,000 years ago, a bit Mr. Shanjuan, avoid sage emperor Shun Abdication this seclusion, hence the name. It is the Yixing three Qidong one. Shanjuan Cave area of approximately 5,000 square meters, the tour route is approximately 800 meters. Down three layers connected; upper, middle and lower water tunnel, tunnel interlinked. Into the hole, is like entering an underground palace. The Shanjuan hole entrance in the hole. Cave Lion as large field is an area of 1000 square meters of natural boulder hall stone hall that can accommodate thousands of tourists, tall and spacious, hung above a variety of vivid stalactites. On either side of the stone hall, stands a shape of Leo, the white elephant of boulders, lifelike, realistic shape. The stalactites shoots up to 7 meters, towering hole, the name of the pillar peak. It is a little bit of stone milk accumulation from every 30 to 50 years to grow 1 centimeter high, its formation more than 30,000 years.
on hole even larger scale than in the hole, the hole is 70 meters long, 30 meters wide and 30 meters high. Hole the shape of shells, the diffuse clouds all year round, warm in winter and cool in summer, temperatures throughout the year to maintain 23 degrees Celsius, which is also called warm hole. Ring wall of rocks formed lotus reflection the eternal Samuume, sheep, horse, panda scene, lifelike. The crevice between fine waterfall waterfall formed underground pools, the top of the stone milk reflection in the lake, singular Tiancheng. Through the stone steps spiral through the wind and thunder "," waves "," scat "," Kazuma "4, Shek Mun. At this point, you can feel the wind and thunder hidden for waves far Wen Ku gongs mood Wanmabenteng. The stone milk drops into the fantasy scene more green grape, orange bergamot, the white Xianou, the wings of a crane, Babel Lycopodium, plum screens, etc., varied and beautiful. The odd Shanjuan, mainly under the hole and water tunnel. The next hole is about 180 meters, 18 meters wide, 22 meters high.
outside the cave with a 6-meter-high stone scarp. After the heavy rain, waterfalls water Zhixie cliff gully bottom, unrestrained emotion, also known as "waterfall hole. The tunnel, connected with the rear hole is a very ancient underground River. About 120 meters long, 4.5 meters of water depth, the river is the most up to 6 meters wide, available year-round through the boat. Visitors to this point, take the boat. Canoes a leaf, rippling the meantime, in this dark hole