2014年6月28日星期六

Japanese chess

The Hiragana:

Chess, Japanese し ょ the う ぎ Katakana: シ the of Engineering ウ drink Roman tone: syo u gi also called the Shogi, also known as Japanese chess, a popular board game in Japan.

chess ancestor is India Qiatulanka, and the mainstream view incoming from Southeast Asia, said by the chess Chuan Tang Dynasty went to Japan, evolved [1], in the Heian period evolved into chess chess, Ping generals and peace . After peace chess branch into a teenager chess in chess, general-ki, greatly to chess, chess Tianzhu generals, Maha greatly chess, Thai chess, the overall situation of the chess and other many Japanese to chess predecessor, the legendary and then after Nara Emperor improvement teenager chess, the ultimate in river households early Bridge were Gui removal pawn drunk as to determine the rules of chess, formal shape now popular Japanese chess.

21 century archaeological discoveries, said chess incoming from Southeast Asia has been confirmed. About AD 500, Chaturanga from Southeast Asia spread to China and Japan, respectively, formed the two chess species. Korean chess and Chinese chess extremely quite similar to the Japan Chess and Qiatu Lan relatively close, and larger chess differences, but also for this reason. Izumo in Japan and dug the oldest found so far Shogi, also early Chess and Chaturanga and Southeast Asia some chess chess species is very close, especially Thai chess. Japan Chess Union also endorsed the statement.

Thai chess with Ping chess have four points in common: First, are the pawns one row ahead;, upgrade lines in advance; soldiers upgrade the chess pieces are upside down; Southeast Asian countries Chess "elephant" The chess "Silver" moves.

world chess (chess, Chinese chess, chess, chess) are associated with the country's political system. Chess reflect the country's political system in Japan, pawn liter variable, indicating that the Japanese believe that if they work hard even if a small infantry, with just a little effort can become a dazzling gold, even ordinary people have become kings possible. Into the rules, utilize the performance of personnel, prisoners compared to the massacre of Chinese chess and chess, chess rules more in line with the mainstream view of today's society.

edit this paragraph rules checkerboard chess chessboard is an array of squares by 10 horizontal and 10 vertical lines intersect, the pawn is placed within the grid, which is 9 rows chessboard. Close to 3 Honjin near the opponents away from their three enemy positions.

pawn in chess pawn in a bell-shaped front end more pointed. Chinese Chess and Chess, Chess is a chess piece refers to the direction of the front-end distinction belongs.

Chess eight pawn. Figure, upstream from left to right, respectively, Dragon King, Speed, and jade will angle line with Ryoma, and downstream, respectively, from left to right into incense, Dream Car, into silver, silver, gold, Gui Ma Cheng Gui, infantry and into gold. individually

each pawn Short title and moves, are as follows:

Wang (Jade) (ou-shou/gyoku-shou) referred to: the king (Jade) (ou/gyo)

king will

moves:

1 . The King and jade moves. As shown on the right, cross to go vertical go, move diagonally can go eight directions

2. A time to go, you can not jump.

3. Wang (Jade) like handsome Chinese Chess (), Wang (Jade) each other will be dead or trapped to death, this side that failed. The coaster

(hi-sha) referred to: fly (hi) the coaster

moves:

1. Speed ​​referred fly. The fly moves forward, rewind, can be left to walk the right line.

2. Can go to any number of cells, and not leapfrog other pieces.

3. Can be upgraded to the Dragon King

Dragon King (ryu-ou) referred to: o/dragon (ryu) Dragon King by Speed ​​upgrades from. The Dragon King

moves:

1. Dragon King moves forward, backward, can sinistral right line. Walking countless.

2. Dragon King in any direction can also move diagonally.

3. Not leapfrog other pieces.

angle line (kaku-gyou) referred to as: angle (kaku) moves:

1. Angle of the line referred to the angle. Diagonal line go walking only oblique direction.

2. Can go to any number of cells, and not leapfrog other pieces.

3. You can upgrade the referred of Ryoma

Ma (ryu-ma): Horse, Ryoma

, (uma) Remarks: by the angle of the line upgrade from

moves:

1. Ryoma referred to as the horse. Can go any oblique direction grid.

2. The Longma also down about the direction of a grid.

3. Not leapfrog other pieces. the

gold (kin-shou), into silver, into Gui, Chengxiang into step (と (To))

referred to as: gold, Guyana, apricot, と (To) gold will

the method of use:

1. Can move forward, left front, right front, left, right or walking a grid

2. Gold will be the important sub force captured the other side of King, but also to defend the king important sub

3 of. Weaknesses is and not diagonally backward

silver (gin-shou) referred to: Silver (gin)

silver will

the the use of:

1. Silver will be the front left, front, right front, left rear, right rear, all to go.

2. Silver will assist will be defensive sub, but also assist coaster offensive sub force.

3. weakness is not about to go straight back.

4. Can be upgraded Chengyin. the

the Gui horse

Gui Ma (kei-ma), referred to as: the Gui (kei)

use:

1. Gui horse in the eight kinds of pieces, only leaped over each other and one's own pawn.

2. Unlike chess, chess in Gui Ma can only jump in front of two directions (see Figure).

3. Gui horse with the angle of the line with the is very combat effectiveness.

4. Can be upgraded to Gui. referred to as:

Xiangche

Dream Car (kyou-sha) the Hong (kyou)

moves:

1. The Xiangche moves forward any grid, but can not turn back. Because you can go straight infinite grid and can not turn back, also known as the "や ri" (yari, guns)

2. Xiangche basically belongs to the defense of the sub force, once captured by the other side, has become a powerful attack sub force.

3. Can upgraded to Hong. The the

i soldiers (fu-hyou) referred to: i (fu) Infantry

moves:

1. Can only move forward a grid

2. The infantry in chess is the largest sub, it has played a very important role in the whole game of chess, killing one of the key.

3. You have held the sub infantry, you have a right to speak, there is a combat capability to attack each other.

4. Can upgrade と gold (Tokin)

silver into Gui into Hong と gold (into silver, Cheng Gui, Cheng Hong, と

narigin, narikei, narikyo, tokin)

referred to as: full, Guyana, apricot, と (also known as as step-by-step )

use: the same with gold. when a game will chess start

start configuration, the two sides have twenty pieces, distributed as follows to configuration can textual representation:

1:

a pawn to the right. King or jade will be placed in the row of the checkerboard Zhong closest players.

2. Two gold king or jade will next placed.

3. Two silver deposit will be placed next to.

4. Two Gui horse placed silver will be the next.

5. The two Xiangche placed in the next Gui horse.

6. Placed on an angle in the second line, the line at the left and a coaster on the right. The two pieces below are Gui Ma.

7. The nine infantrymen All placed on the third line.

need to pay attention to the Chess handicap system, the above arrangement is applicable only in the case of no handicap.

upgrade chess pawn with the upgrade system. In addition to the king (Jade), will be and has been upgraded pawn, all the pieces can be upgraded.

When a scalable pawn advances to located the three lines farthest away from the players or from the region out of the player can choose to upgrade the pawn. Just flip pawn that the upgrade is complete. * coaster upgrade for the Dragon King (referred Dragon)

upgrade details. In addition to portrait or landscape to walk any number of steps, it is also compatible with the king (Jade) footwork. (Some books say is compatible silver will be the footwork, there is no difference between the two, the silver than Wang (Jade will be) missing moves coaster originally can be realized)

* angle line upgrade to Ryoma (referred to as the horse) . Apart from any number of steps can be walking along the diagonal, it is also compatible with the king (Jade) footwork. (The same is sometimes considered to be compatible will be footwork)

* Silver the Gui the horse, Xiangche and infantry after the upgrade will change in accordance with the gold will take the law, does not retain the original activity.

* called into silver, silver will be upgraded into silver also recorded as "full".

* Gui Ma upgrade called into Gui as Gui also recorded as "Kyu" or "this". Into the enemy positions bottom two rows must be upgraded automatically.

* Xiangche called into Hong upgrade into Hong also recorded as "apricot" or "a". Into the enemy positions in the bottom row must be automatically upgraded.

* infantry upgrades called into step (Sanseido the big speech forest second version: the と gold or と Chinese characters "into a step-by-step" abbreviation). Into the enemy positions in the bottom row must be automatically upgraded.

upgrade and the Chinese translation of the term of a similar situation, called liter variant of chess.

eat sub and break into this most special chess players can spend handedly one's own eaten piece back to the chessboard to become one's own pawn to break into the Japanese called, a substantial increase in the complexity of chess. When an upgrade pawn is eat, the upgrade will be canceled, with the former chess kinds of driving.

into the four restrictions:

1. Even if just to break into a pawn falls on enemy positions also can not upgrade immediately, and must under first-hand the job.

2. Can not to eat pawn break into the no longer follow the position. Such as infantry a baby and so can not fall to the bottom line of the enemy positions; Gui horse can not fall to the bottom line of enemy positions on the front line.

3. Infantry can not break into the existing one's own (not upgrade) infantry all the way, this kind of foul is called two-step.

4. Not immediately infantry into the checkmate each other, this kind of fouls called playing interrogate step; contrary, if it will not immediately be dead not to foul, called the hit Step. Chess them,

foul in the case that can not be upgraded to for pawn upgrade, a situation repeated four times, the two have not upgraded already Fangbu Bing on the same longitudinal Road (Japanese abbreviation of "two-step"), destruction into the limit, even under more than one or the other hand of the king, "should", or remove their own pawn so that the king will automatically be the hand of the king, in violation of the pawn to allow line method (such as the angle in breach of the slash away), overtime etc is a foul, which is the most common the Japan Shogi career race "two-step", since 1977 in more than 44 times the Japan Shogi career race "two-step" records.

will be dead if under can catch the other king of first-hand, ie chess generals, known as the king of the hand. Anti-will is called inverse hand of the king. The king will not be able to escape, this hand constituting the 诘 み, that chess will die. Checkmate players win Bureau.

if under the hand hand of the king, but the other defense in any case will the next move will be dead, then called the will to, that is the "lore" in Chinese chess.

chess allow even the will but not repeat the same tactic long term care (L), if the parties repeat the cycle in the same way according to the will, should shine up to four times, according to the party violation, sentenced negative. For example, Party coaster according to Party B jade will move to the left one cell, the Party in turn coaster right for one space according to Party B again jade to the right style, Party turn the coaster the left a grid according to ...... so repeat loop to the fourth, then Party violations sentenced negative. This rule in Japan called "Even A king hand の Thousand Days hand.

the end of the chess game, in addition to the dead, chess can still be at the end of the following circumstances:

* party line violation step foul players in the race will be directly ruled defeat.

* If a pawn after party after the move, the global total of four the same situation does not constitute a long the offense, the game ends automatically, regardless of the outcome, the Japanese called "A Thousand Days Hands", the equivalent of chess " triplicates rules. "

* If the King were in the upgrade area, and can not checkmate, the game is over. The two sides need to own pawn scoring method of calculation: the king will not scoring, the angle of the line and coaster each count one-fifth, a sub each other pawn. Will not be a pawn of the upgrade for extra points. If only one party to score less than 27 points less party ruled negative, otherwise, regardless of the outcome.

if any, regardless of the outcome in the race, both sides need to replay and adjust line sub-priorities (as well as to reduce the time limit). Amateur competition, general contracting, and trouble.

handicap, strong players sometimes make sub (Japanese called horse fall) to the relatively weak players have the chance to win.

handicap handicap square (ie started) must be removed in the beginning when the permanent part of their own pawn (ie not in any way be placed on the board). However, in the international tournament, the sub and will not cause a significant advantage for the relatively weak players because the troops on the differences. The common handicap Bureau will be in accordance with the increasing severity, are listed below:

* Hong Board with a draw (in Japanese called tie) alternating even (in Japanese called semi-Hong)

* remove the left margin of Dream Car (Japanese called Hong off or left Hong the fall)

* remove the angle of the line (in Japanese called corner or diagonal line drop)

*, remove the coaster (the Japanese called flying, or coaster drop)

* remove coaster with the left margin of the Dream Car (Japanese called fly the fragrant fall)

* remove coaster with the angle of the line (in Japanese called two down)

* removing Speed, angle lines, with the left margin of Dream Car (the Japanese called three down)

* remove Speed, angle lines and Xiangche two multiply (Japanese called four down)

* remove Speed, angle lines, Xiangche two multiplied by two and Gui Ma (the Japanese called the six fall)

other handicap Bureau occasionally occur. The most severe cases, is a sub-square in the disk, only one king in the normal position, while the horse table has three infantry (in Japanese called step three soldiers).

in different chess CDM, let a child of the relationship between the severity of player rating differences, there is no generally accepted standards. But in general (especially for amateurs), the severity of the handicap should be approximately equal to the gap between the two sides level. For example, a poor grade is so fragrant, the difference two corner and so on.

will be a great feature of chess is highly offensive, is frequently the case again weak attack force against another sturdy defense, in case they do not counterattack, eventually win, because forward to many chess pawn easy difficult to back against easy liters change; the attacks side of the sub in the enemy positions; the pawn exchange and does not reduce the number of the pieces. Therefore, the draw is almost impossible. However, in general, because the attack requires a longer time before the attack, the two sides will be in the array gracefully defensive battle.

normal layout generally jade/king moves to flank safer position "Home Jade (Jade fixed in situ is very dangerous, as in chess castling can also cause a disadvantage) the surrounding lattice, with two gold and one silver to hold one another silver will attack, and step-by-step, Hong Gui fly/angle camera moving, auxiliary offense and defense.

1. Wang

1. The [king guarding the gold and silver three]:

used for Wai Yu-defense is very important. King of the gold and silver three is enough, if too many chess horse used for defensive, offensive chess horse relative reduction for adverse initiative to master the game of chess. the

Therefore especially in Wai hand Shun is very important, the appropriate number of chess horse to participate more important Wai Yu

2. [Wang will be placed with the coaster opposite direction]: start the process, the

in circumference jade to always pay attention to the other coaster offensive way, as far as possible so that the king maintained the opposite direction, so make the king a more secure and Speed. The other hand the offensive Shun more saving hand Shun used to have parties offensive. On the other hand, the motto also shows that has square coaster with the king, the direction opposite meaning: When Speed ​​foreign attack, does not make the king to leave the defense to the attack by the other side of the space.

3. [King falls following paragraph is the fundamental basis]:

king unless a last resort, should generally be in the next paragraph, because the king will be in the middle of the vulnerable around the attack from both sides. Wang (Jade) each other by the hand of the king and extract a self-matrix, often followed is to die

4. [Avoid king head beaten horse] Gui the:

Gui horse when the other hit the King (jade) head, it is difficult to increase defense, so try to avoid.

2. The coaster

(1). [Step exchange before flying three enrichment]: the the

coaster where tendons bit the former Fang Bubing, fight in the other infantry exchanged this three advantages: to increase the holding horse, smooth coaster road, once the other ignored into the words of infantry in support of the coaster, so that the other overwhelmed.

2. . 【Dragon King enemy positions were Italy]:

coaster in the enemy positions to become the Dragon King, its power is great, will make the other defense more vulnerability. Dragon King both long distance offensive, but also close fight to get the opportunity to take a more two, to take a more

3. . [Has the two Speed ​​too proud]:

to two coaster regardless of Wang and Yu will use will be very tough, but pay attention to the angle of the line "Do not be hand coaster.

3. Angle line

1. . 【Sequence intraday angle than for Speed ​​role:

sequence set chess horse: the majority is still in its original state, makes for Speed ​​nowhere to play. Contrary slash attack will be much easier to use the angle of the line.

2. . [Ryoma from the array of benefits: change Ryoma

angle line into, for defensive effectiveness great, in particular, to participate Wai Yu Wai Yu firmer.

3. . 【Far corner good trick to avoid angle tendons bit]:

angle line more suitable for a long-(the silver will be more suitable for the attack), and in attack far while taking into account the other position, more favorable situation at Bianzhao This will form a lot of good strokes. Row chess, it is necessary to pay attention to the other jurisdiction of the angle of the line, so as not to suffer unnecessary losses. Especially when the other angle line held the horse, but be careful attention to avoid "the hand of the king for Speed" appear, each other to bring food to lure tricks.

(4). [Interchangeable angle line vibration coaster party lossy]:

when = two sides swap corner row if party adopted is vibration for Speed ​​tactics, it will make their own losses.

5. . "[Huanjiao avoid sudden the front steps of 5 tendons: after

Huanjiao, when the sudden the front steps of 5 ribs, the other will play this hand 5 seven horns, corner walk in jade head, bad Wai Yu, easily resulting in the death. Once the mobile becomes Ryoma, a great variety, and will not be able to deal with.

6. . 【Angle line is the main force of the protracted war]:

angle line is called the big horse because it has a unique line of chess rules, to seize it difficult to, and it is very strong ability to obtain other chess horse.

4. Will be

1. . 【Gold leads Cherish gold bottom step more steady】:

often in game gold will take a step back appears Cherish; the gold following fight infantry, will be very solid in defense.

2. . 【Inducement into the oblique dilemma】:

gold would lure a ramp into it a dilemma, there will be a windfall.

3. . [No gold defense is no defensive]:

defense will be, will be at a disadvantage; siege aimed at the king next gold will attack often is a breakthrough.

5. Silver will

(1). 【Silver diagonally forward advantages more】:

silver diagonally forward there will be a lot of advantages, not only offensive shortcut route back, but also in the case of abnormal; silver will often assume the role assists rods silver is the best the fools examples. silver

(2) [not a tesujis game used]:

in the game, especially when the generals, and often there is a silver fails (that silver will enter enemy positions do not upgrade) tesujis silver will move quickly, and line chess rules retire horoscopes characteristics, the offensive line role often played in the close-general angle.

6. Gui Ma

1. . [The Gui horse tall will become step feeding:

without considering jumping Gui Ma, not backward step will be captured (including the use of the Gui horse holding horse), except for the generals, it is best to play the next segment (ie Jinnai).

2. . [Gui head of silver hit and step playing tesujis】:

Gui horse Silver will play and infantry captured in the head, The as tesujis often appear in the game, so the Gui horse (including holding the horse's use) must careful.

3. . [The other three Gui Ma careful to die]:

difficult to do things as known in advance, do not underestimate Gui horse: with a unique rows horse characteristics due to Gui Marley Wai jade solution, the control of the king to retreat will play an effective role.

edit this paragraph chess notation Japanese notation usually only record the coordinates of the chess pieces moved first to write tendons (abscissa, the equivalent of the way of the Chinese Chess), write a paragraph (ordinate, equivalent to the line of Chinese chess) Finally, write the chessman name.

coordinates to get the upper hand side, the abscissa is the line from the rightmost line to the left-most, Arabic numerals, for 1-9; vertical coordinate from above to the following, with Chinese characters, for one to nine. Flac party since array/upper hand side of the enemy positions, since the seventh to the ninth paragraph of belonging to the upper hand side array/flac party first to the third paragraph of the enemy positions.

different from Chinese chess, chess party to go move to one of the "hand", each of the two sides to go one with a total of two-handed, chess fifty round that is equal to the chess one hundred hand. The lots singular, that is, by the upper hand to go sub, an upper hand Fan hand the number of double the number of sub go by the way of escape, are flac Fan.

chess records upper hand ▲ said, FLAC method, for example as follows:

1. ▲ 2 six-step

2. 3 four-step

3. ▲ 7 six steps

4. 8 star anise into

5. ▲ with silver

6. 2, two silver

7. ▲ 5 eight gold the right

each hand chess record of the position of the pawn moved, first to write tendons, written after the paragraph, and then record the name of the piece. For example, just get first-hand infantry before advancing coaster moves "▲ 2 six-step" flac advancing angle tendons (the square corners line bit in oblique) on the infantry moves as "four-step" so and so on. the

such as which hand moves went to the location on the other hand moves to the same position and take away each other's pawn, "with that position.

subject to single-handedly into the enemy positions and liters chess becomes another chess kinds, plus the word "to" in the piece, such as "▲ fly into"; coupled with the word "fragmentation" If you choose not 4 seven silver is not a "like". The upgraded pawn records with its new name, such as the dragon, horse, into silver, as incense and other. the

the pawn break into to the board, there is no other like chess pieces come to the grid, you do not need special comment, or to add a "hit" word, such as "▲ 4 Wuguishan playing. See to break into and eat the child a.

In addition, if encountered more than one identical arms pawn on the chessboard can come to the same grid, such as the upper hand respectively located nine 6 nine gold, will be available then went to Jade before eight, were the pieces notes to it's location, direction, as follows:

around symmetrical position:

* piece from the left to the right to go to the "left";

* piece from the right side to the left to go "right";

(Note Do not mix in mind, like the wind, like since) the

asymmetric position about:

* pawn forward from the back straight, the "straight";

* pawn to move forward from the side, regardless of left and right are on ;

* pawn to traverse, "Send";

* pawn backwards, "drawing".

Note that each pawn may (in addition to the only straight "infantry") up to 4, it is possible there is a discrepancy, the need to use the word, such as "▲ 5 eight gold upper right. And can the oblique retire the jade backward Zhitui king will be the Dragon King, Ryoma up to 2, if there is a need to distinguish between "straight lead" and "oblique cited" direction oblique cited "write," straight cited only writing "primer" on the line.

Edit this paragraph chess jargon chess horse that pawn. Mounted the the chess horse's box called horse box.

placed horse Desk, a place to capture each other chess horse, stipulates that both sides must be placed in the lower right corner of the chessboard. Standard Chess both parties dedicated horse station. Usually use shogi chess box, in principle, chess box upside down, the boxes face up for horse Desk.

big horse and small horse large horse only two ----- Speed, angle lines: small horse five ---- gold, silver, cinnamon, Bing.

take the horse, also known as "the horse was". That the other chess horse "captured" and taken away from the board on their own horse on stage. chess horse

held horse have side horse stage their own "captive" to be used again as a "reserve forces".

"held horse" order must be completed in accordance with the value of the point size to a positive arrangement in "horse Desk on. In principle to The the

horse station emissions from large horse, the second emission gold, silver, Guangxi, Hong such a small horse, third the emissions

the natural is the large number of infantry. Chess horse horse on stage only in the case of no storage gap can only be the same chess horse stacked up. In this way, the ease of use, but also at a glance.

playing horse referred to as the "fight" own holding horse placed on the checkerboard array of any valid points. Hit the unlimited, each playing a chess horse as first-hand.

in one hand and can be understood as "one step away" or "to complete a move. The players will be a chess horse to move from one cell to another cell, regardless of the grid spaces or occupy the other chess horse and take the horse, are a forward.

the king hand will want to take the king will single-handedly called "the hand of the king". "Single-handedly will the king will die." Relative to the "general" of the Chinese chess. The king hand "do not have instructions.

will die that victory over the other, which is the ultimate goal of chess. The hand of the king "a party must immediately make the king will escape or cope with a move away. If you can not escape or can not be mapped, the king will be "dead." the the chess hierarchy vocational Thinking of the knight: Kudan the ~ four

reward will be in terms of financial: three sections to the early part of

amateur Dan: eight, seven segment

edit this paragraph around (gift), the sixth to the early part of

amateur level bits: 1 ~ The legal level the 15

in Beijing, Guangzhou, Ningxia are following accordingly

Shanghai will chess the Dan system

goods players: a product to Nine

level bit players: 1 to 12

See Chinese Chess: Chinese Chess

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