Human Anatomy

Human Anatomy (Human Anatomy) is a study of the shape and structure of the normal human sciences, under the morphological areas of biological science. In the medical field, it is an important foundation courses, whose task is to reveal the morphological and structural characteristics of the human body system organ the various organs adjacent and associated structures are laid for further learning follow-up medical foundation courses and clinical medicine courses foundation. Compulsory subject of human anatomy, art, music, sports and other disciplines.

the the human basic structure

With the progress of mankind and the development of science and culture, human anatomy, the service object in research methods, significant focus and purpose the difference, and thus gradually formed a number of unique distinction: If the composition of the human body system, examine each of the described system organ morphology, structure and system anatomy; various body segments, and the needs of the medical and surgical science, research and exposition body morphology of the structure, location and adjacent to the relationship between the local anatomy; adapt to the art of painting and sculpture, and other professional requirements anatomy; study of human organs and structures its morphological structure and functional relationships in the sports and training Sports Anatomy; various surgical hierarchy foundation is devoted to clinical applications (surgery) anatomy. In addition, due to the different research tools, there has been a general visual observation and anatomical operation (giant vision) anatomy and microscopy and electron microscopy Watch - namely, micro and pico anatomy. There is a special school ontogeny and development process and the rule of human embryos or human embryology.

view of neuroscience in nearly two decades of rapid development in the next century is likely to become the trend of the biological sciences and leading disciplines, as well as reference to medical schools in developed countries, curriculum, teaching and research of the original shoulder system anatomy and regional anatomy two courses reform, the establishment of the two courses in gross anatomy and neuroanatomy, rapid updates of upcoming original central nervous system set up separate classes, in order to adapt to the development trend of the world of neuroscience, to promote the teaching content. Most of the knowledge of the structure of the rest of the human form, was placed under this course that gross anatomy taught. This course is divided into two stages, the first stage is an overview of the structure of knowledge of the various systems of the human body organs, to lectures, supplemented necessary to prove internship, but the composition of the skeletal system of the human body bracket at this stage required to master all the content. The second stage is composed of individuals of the human body, one by one anatomic observation. Basic teacher prompted the students according to the textbook independent autopsy operation, knowledge of human morphology and gradually cultivate and enhance students' ability to observe, analytical skills and synthesis capabilities, as well as certain anatomical operating skills. Lectures interspersed with the necessary theoretical at this stage, the main task is to guide the participants will practice the knowledge gained serialization theoretical. In addition to clinical departments teachers taught the significance of some of the structure of content in the clinical diagnosis and treatment, in order to develop the students' horizons and ideas to add interest to learn.

edit this paragraph brief history of anatomy is a historic science had clearly put forward the understanding of the anatomy in the Warring States Period (500 BC), the first medical book through , and has been in use since the name of the organ. In the time of ancient Greece and Western Europe (BC 500-300), the famous philosopher Hippocrates (Hippocrates) and Aristotle (Aristotle) ​​field animal anatomy and on. the the first complete

anatomy book when push Galen (Galen, AD 130-201), "medicine by many organs, blood running innervation and human basic structure

already a more detailed and specific the narrative, but because Western Europe is in the dark period of religious rule prohibiting the anatomy of the human body, the book mainly from animal anatomical observations, it is wrong in many ways. The religious rule serious obstacle to the progress of science and culture in the years 1000, has seriously hindered the development of medicine and anatomy.

Renaissance was a great revolution in the history of Europe, the seeds of capitalism, the shackles of the dark rule of the Church began to be destroyed, "a learning, mental and character Giants era" (Engels). In this period, the wisdom of the people be fully reflected in the creation of science and art, Leonardo da Vinci (Leonardo da Vinci) called a representative of this era, he is not only a monumental painting handed down to posterity, and the painted anatomical atlas, detailed and accurate even if today is also amazing. That when anatomy also emerged a masters the - Weizha (Andress Vesalius ,1514-1564), from his student days, on the risk of religious persecution, and persistence in the human anatomy experiments, finally completed the "human constructed masterpiece, book seven, not only the system is perfect narrative the human organs morphology and structure of the system, but also the courage to get rid of the shackles of Galen authority, to correct Galen many wrong-headed, and so he became the founder of modern human anatomy. With Weizha the same time, a number of anatomical and doctors, found that some of the body's structure, like Ousidaqiu Division (Eustachius), learning Yassin (Sylvius), the Cannavaro stay (Varolio), Alan Qi (Aranti,) Paul Tarot (Botallo), a structure named after them still remain in anatomy textbooks. Subsequently, the British scholar Harvey (William Harvey 1578-1657) proposed the cardiovascular system is a closed piping system concept, created the doctrine of blood circulation, so that the physiology anatomy discrete out. After Following the microscope invention, Italian, Maltese match group (Malcell Malpighi ,1628-1694) was observed with the fine structure of animals and plants, explore the histological wild. The end of the 18th century, the ontogeny Embryology started. 19 century Italian scholars Gorky (Camello Golgi ,1843-1926), the first silver-plated dip neurons technology, the Spaniards caha (Rom'on Y cajal ,1852-1934) to establish a silver plated dip neurofibrillary law, thus becoming the neuroanatomical school recognized the two founders.

the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, due to the impact of idealist and metaphysical thought, human anatomy embarked on the tedious isolation static description of the situation of human morphology, some scholars worried and disappointed that the anatomy has become a "fossil", to the end of its tether, totally no development prospects. While the other part of the scholars starting from a dialectical view of nature, start from the functional anatomy, evolutionary morphology and experimental morphology, seeking to open up the path. the surging

with the technology revolution, the past two decades, biomechanics, immunology, tissue chemistry, molecular biology penetration to Anatomy and emerging technologies such as the tracer technology, immunohistochemical techniques, cell culture technology and situ hybridization in morphological studies are widely used to make this ancient disciplines call issued by the splendor of youth, especially neuroanatomy with rapid development. China since the founding of New China, due to the implementation of the "contending" the prosperity of science and technology policy, medical education and anatomy have made unprecedented considerable progress during Despite a decade of stagnation and retrogression of the "Cultural Revolution", but the party's 11. Since the Third Plenary Session of the order out of chaos, the implementation respect for science, respect talent policy, to create a good academic environment, especially the reform and opening up policy, China's Anatomy workers creating a learning and advanced science and technology to catch up with developed countries and possible , the equipment constantly improve and update, conditions gradually improve and enhance the most gratifying is that a large number of young and middle-aged Anatomy workers thrive, is hard work for the great cause of rejuvenating the Chinese nation and building a modern socialist motherland, it is foreseeable in the near future will foothold in the world's Anatomy community with a new look.

edit this paragraph posture and common orientation terminology in order to correctly describe the shape of the human body structure, location, and their inter-relationship, must develop uniform standards recognized that anatomical posture and orientation terminology, beginners must accurately grasp this basic knowledge facilitate learning, communication and avoid misunderstandings.

1. The anatomical posture

In order to clarify the ministries of human morphology and structure, position and the mutual relations, we must first establish a standard posture describe any posture, both this standard posture prevail. This standard posture called anatomical posture. The body upright, his eyes look straight ahead; feet side by side, toes facing forward; the upper limb perpendicular to the sides of the torso, palms facing forward (thumb on the outside).

2. The common orientation terminology

on superior and the lower inferior: Anatomy posture head home on foot the next. Comparative anatomy or embryology, due to the relationship between animals and embryos postural commonly used cranial cranial instead; instead with the caudal caudal. The relationship between the limbs is commonly used proximally proximal and distal distal described parts, i.e. the roots close to the trunk proximal and the relative distance or the end portion distally. before anterior and after all posterior

: ventral who rely on the body before the backrest surface later. Often referred to as the ventral the ventralis and dorsal dorsalis, comparative anatomy. Is commonly used in the description of the hand palm side of the palmar and dorsal. the

medial medialis and lateral lateralis: subject to the midline of the body, from the midline near the inside to the outside away from the midline relatively far. Such as the thumb of the hand in the outer side of the little finger on the inside. In describing the structure of the upper limb, since the forearm, ulnar, radial parallel, ulna on the inside, the radial on the outer side, it can be replaced with ulnar ulnar inside instead of the radial side of the radial outer. Leg calf diameter tied fibula and tibia in the medial ranks outside of the fibula, tibial tibial and exhaust side of the fibular termed it is also available. the

within the interior and outside exterior: to indicate some of the relationship of the structure and the cavity should be noted that the distinction between the medial and lateral.

shallow superficial and deep deep: close to the surface of the part is shallow relative depth submersible living in the inner part called deep.

3. Axis and the surface

(a) shaft axis: Anatomy posture prevail, human three typical mutually perpendicular axes, ie the sagittal axis of the front and rear direction of the horizontal lines; coronal (frontal) shaft about direction of the horizontal line; vertical axis is perpendicular to the vertical direction and the horizontal line perpendicular to each other. The shaft used for the expression of articulation of the displacement trajectory of the bone along the axis.

(b) surface plane: in accordance with the axis of the body or organ was cut to a different aspect, in order to observe certain structures from different angles. Typical facets: the sagittal plane sagittal plane, cut along the sagittal axis direction made, it is the human body is divided into left and right parts of the longitudinal section, the section just by the body's midline, called midsagittal the surface median sigittal plane; coronal or frontal surface coronal plane, or frontal plane of the cut made along the coronal axis direction, it is the human body is divided into before and after the two longitudinal section perpendicular to the sagittal plane and the horizontal plane; horizontal plane or content horizontalCompare plane of cross-section or transverse plane, along the horizontal cross-section, it will be the human body is divided into two, with the two slitting face vertical. It should be noted, the general section of the organ not to whichever of the major axis of the human body with its own major axis prevail, that the cut made along its long axis is called the longitudinal section of the longitudinal section with the long axis perpendicular to the tangent plane called cross section transverse section.

Edit this paragraph body structures constitute the basic structural and functional unit of the human cell cell, between cells with cytoplasmic intercellular substance. Stromal cells not having the cell morphology and the structure of substances produced by cells, which comprises the fiber, matrix and the fluid substance (tissue fluid, lymph, plasma, etc.) on the cell plays support, protection, coupling and nutritional effects, participation constituting The cell survival microenvironment microenvironment. Cells by stromal cells combined into many similar morphologically similar population of cells is called tissue tissue, there are several types of human tissue, generally belong to the traditional four basic tissues, epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue . Mainly in an organization, several organizations together to form organs organ has a certain shape, structure and features. Series of organs perform some same function organically linked together to form a system system with specific functions. Motion system constitutes the system of the human body ---- including bone, bone connected and muscle, is labor, displacement and maintain the structural basis of the posture and activities; viscera were grouped into various organs of the digestive system ---- shoulder photo into food digestion, absorption, and residue discharge; respiratory system --- for gas exchange; urinary system ---- discharged ultimate product of tissue metabolism; reproductive system ---- produce reproductive cells and the formation of a new individual to continue the race ; as well as the execution metabolic system to provide them with nutrients and transport of the circulatory system of the metabolites; nervous system including the central part of the brain and spinal cord and peripheral nervous over the body, as well as the special feelings device sensory organs they feel a variety of stimuli, and generate the appropriate response of the body's internal and external environment; addition, there are scattered in the endocrine glands of the body in different functions. Various systems of the human body not only has its own unique shape, structure and function, under the domination of the unity of the nervous system and neurohumoral regulation interrelated, mutual restraint, synergy together to complete the a unified whole activity and a high level of awareness activities, In order to achieve a high degree of unity with the rapidly changing internal and external environment.

edit this paragraph to learn the purpose and methods of learning the purpose of human anatomy, is to understand and master the basic knowledge of the morphology of the various systems of the body organs to lay the necessary morphological basis for learning other basic medicine and clinical medicine. Follow the principle of "gradual" learning of medical science: first morphological, after functional metabolism; first normal after pathological; then gradually involving clinical problems. Only a correct understanding of the normal human morphology, in order to fully understand the physiological, biochemical processes and pathological changes, in order to understand and master the occurrence of various diseases, development, clinical features, and diagnosis and treatment of the precautionary principle. An introductory course on human anatomy learning and study medicine, is an important basic medical course is a required course to learn traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.

human anatomy is a morphological sciences, highly intuitive, nouns describe its characteristics. Therefore, in the learning process to take full advantage of a variety of specimens, models, photographs and other visual props, to see more, multimode, want more, and more in mind, in order to deepen the understanding and mastery of the form of knowledge. In addition, learning to have a point of view of evolution of the human anatomy, the local and overall unified point of view, the morphology and function of unified point of view, the theory with a practical point of view. The only way to fully understand and master the morphological structure of the human body, the human anatomy basic medical courses to learn.

Edit the motion system this paragraph motion system includes three parts of the bones, joints and muscles. The bones of the body of bones connected by joints. Movement system not only constitutes the human skeleton bracket, complete a variety of sports under the domination of the nervous system, but also plays an important role in the support and protection to the body. Such as skull support and protect the brain, the thoracic support the protection of the heart, lungs, spleen, liver and other organs. Limbs, bones Zeyi movement based.

skeletal muscle attached to the bone, contraction affects bone, through joint movement. In motion, the bone from the leverage, the hub of the movement in the joint, skeletal muscle is the driving force of the movement. Therefore, bone and joint passive motion system, under the control of the nervous system, skeletal muscle is the active part of the movement system. Section I


1, General

bone bone is an organ morphology and function, hard toughness, rich in nerves and blood vessels, can continue to metabolism and growth and development, and has converted repair and regeneration ability. Regular physical activity can promote good bone development and growth of bone loose, long-term without cause. Bone in adults is 206, according to their different position in the human body, can be divided into the trunk bone, girdle, lower limb and skull part 1), 51 trunk bone upper limb bones of 64, 62 lower limb, skull 29. Bone weight, in adults weight about 1/5, and neonates as compared to 1/7. Each bones are to have a certain morphology and function of organs, both hard and elastic. The bone morphology


bone have different forms and can be divided into long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones four categories.

1. Tubular long bone of the long bones, located in the limbs. Long bone one on both ends. Also known as the backbone of the body, bone density, within the marrow cavity, to accommodate bone marrow. End aka epiphyseal than enlargement, and the smooth articular surface covered by articular cartilage.

2. Short bone short bone generally cube-shaped, multi-link together, such as carpal and tarsal flocks.

3. Flat bone flat bone plate-like shape. Major components of the cranial, thoracic and pelvic wall cavity organ protective effect, such as calvaria bone, sternum, ribs.

4. The irregular shape of irregular bone irregular bone, such as vertebrae. Some irregular bone within the cavity gas called gas-bearing bone, above the maxillary, frontal, etc.. the

(b) of the bone structure

each block bone by bone, marrow and periosteum, etc., and neural and vascular distribution.

1. Bone bone substance is the main component of bone, is divided into cortical bone and cancellous bone. Cortical bone dense and hard, distributed in the long backbone, other types of bone and long epiphyseal surface. Cancellous bone honeycomb internal distribution of long epiphysis and other types of bone.

2. Periosteum periosteum parcels outside the articular surface of the bone surface dense connective tissue membrane, contains a wealth of nerves, blood vessels and osteoblasts, so astute an important role in nutrition and bone growth.

3. Bone marrow bone marrow filling the gap in the bone marrow cavity and cancellous bone, is divided into red bone marrow and yellow marrow. Red bone marrow contains a large number of different developmental stages of red blood cells and other immature blood cells, red, hematopoietic function; yellow marrow for a lot of adipose tissue, yellow, and hematopoietic function. Red bone marrow in the bone of the fetus and young children, after 6 years old, red bone marrow of the bone marrow cavity of long bones gradually transformed into yellow bone marrow, but the red bone marrow in the cancellous bone of the various types of bone remains, remain hematopoietic function.

(c) the physicochemical properties of bone

adult bone by 1/3 of the organic matter (mainly collagen), and 2/3 of the inorganic material (mainly calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and calcium chloride, etc.) composition. Organic matter to the bone with a toughness and elasticity, the inorganic bone hardness and brittleness. The combination of organic matter and inorganic bone both flexible and very hard. the

(a) axis bone

1. torso bone

including 24 free cone bone, a sacrum, a coccyx, a sternum and 12 pairs of ribs.

vertebrae from the vertebral body, pedicle and issued from the vertebral arch projection constituent. the the 7th cervical expertise and the end of the main features of the

ministries cervical

not bifurcate, in vivo easy touch, is a sign of clinical count vertebrae.

rib by rib and soft rib, a total of 12 pairs. 1 to 7, on the the rib front end and sternum connected to said true rib. 8 to 12 pairs of ribs and sternum directly connected, said false rib.

sternum sub-sternal, sternum and xiphoid 3 part.

2. cranial

by 23 different shape, size, bone. Divided into the upper part of the skull and the lower part of the face cranial.

young leading edge projecting forward known as the Cape, is an important symbol of the female pelvis measurements. Sacrum the sharp forward under coccyx connected. sides of the sacrum

auricular surface, the total length of the pipeline of a longitudinal central caudal upward continuous with the spinal canal, opening down to the formation of the sacral hiatus, downwardly projecting sacral angle on both sides of the sacral hiatus. Sacrum front is slightly concave, smooth the presacral hole; behind Ridged rough, there are four pairs of posterior sacral foramen.

⑤ coccyx coccyx triangular, bottom side up, connected to borrow cartilage and ligaments sacrum, pointed down, the lower end of the free.

2. Sternum sternum is a flat bone, from top to bottom in the middle of the chest Ministry is divided into three parts of the sternum, sternum and xiphoid. The sternum sternum upper wide called. The sternum Central rectangular called sternal body, and its side edges connected to the first and 2 to 7 costal. The sudden the sternum sternum phase formed at the forward transverse sternal angle uplift called, can touch the body surface, it flat on the second rib cartilage, an important symbol for counting ribs. The lower end of the sternum called the xiphoid as a variable shape of a thin piece of bone, cartilage childhood as the elderly only fully ossification.

3. Rib ribs 12 by rib and costal cartilage. The elongate arcuate rib for flat bones, can be divided into the central body and the front and rear ends. The ribs front end then costicartilage backend enlargement called rib head. Rib body having inner and outer both sides and upper and lower two edge. The inner surface near the lower edge of the rib ditch, intercostal blood vessels and nerves traveling along this ditch.

(b) of the upper limb bones

girdle girdle and the free limb bones, on both sides, of a total of 64.

1. Girdle clavicle and scapula.

(1) the clavicle clavicle: was a "~" in the thorax front upper portion of both sides. The full-length in the skin can be touched, is important bony landmarks. Coarsening of the inboard end of the sternum end sternal section; the outboard end flat acromial end, scapula acromion section. Outer 1/3 of the clavicle, the junction is more fragile and prone to fractures. scapula scapula: for

(2) in the flat bone of the triangle located in the thorax outside the above range of 2 to 7 between the ribs, there are three edge, triangular, and the sides.

the outer corner of the upper edge of a curved finger-like projections called coracoid surface can be touched. The inside edge of the thin, long lateral margin slightly hypertrophy.

upper corners and lower corners, respectively, the inner edge of the upper and lower ends, respectively, of the second rib and the rib 7 can be used as landmarks. Outside corner hypertrophy, pear-shaped articular surface is called the glenoid and humeral head section.

in front of a large shallow nest, toward the ribs called the subscapularis nest; followed by a transverse scapular into the top of the supraspinatus fossa and below the supraspinatus fossa. The outer end of the scapular forward outer extending protrusion known as acromion.

2. Freedom on the limb bones, including the humerus, radius, ulna, and hand bones. In addition to the hand bones of the carpal outside, are considered long bones.

(1) humerus humerus: located in the arm, and is divided into one and both ends. The upper end of the enlargement hemispherical called the humeral head and glenoid and scapula joint section. Head ring around shallow trench that anatomical neck. Outside and in front of the humeral head uplift of the greater tuberosity and small nodules, extending downward like crest, called the the greater tuberosity crest and small nodules crest. Longitudinal shallow trench between the large and small nodules called nodules interscalene biceps tendon through. The humerus with slightly smaller body at the junction of called surgical neck fracture predilection sites. the middle of the outer side of

humerus a rough a "V"-shaped deltoid tuberosity deltoid attachment. The back of the body on the ramp from the inside out under was known as radial nerve spiral shallow ditch, the radial nerve through. Humeral shaft fracture, easy to damage the radial nerve. flat front and rear

humerus slightly forward curled outer parts domed capitellum, radial section; the medial parts tangible, such as tackles trochlea and ulna Festival. Small head outside and the inside of the tackles and one each projection, respectively called the lateral epicondyle and the medial epicondyle. The medial epicondyle rear a shallow groove called the sulcus of the ulnar nerve, ulnar nerve through. Medial epicondyle fractures, easy to damage the ulnar nerve.

(2) radial radius: located in the outer part of the forearm, divided into one and both ends. The upper end of the small, slightly enlarged radial head, the relevant section of the head above the relevant section concave capitellum; ring-shaped articular surface of the radial and ulnar notch section periphery of the head. Head below the tapered part is called the radial neck, the inside of the neck below a tuberosity called radial tuberosity. Bulky lower end of the relevant section of the inner side surface called the ulnar notch, and the relevant section of the ulnar head; outside of the lower end parts down to highlight called radial styloid; below the lower end of the wrist joint surface, and carpal section.

(3) ulna ulna: located inside of the forearm, divided into one and both ends. More bulky upper end, in front of a half-moon of the articular surface called the trochlear notch, the trochlea section. Have a notch after the above and before the bottom protrusions, respectively, said the olecranon and coronoid coronoid outer side nodal plane called the radial notch, with the relevant section of the radial head. The coronoid below rough uplift called ulnar tuberosity. Ulna lower end is called the head of the ulna, its former outside after the articular surface of the ring and radial ulnar notch section. The inside of the foot bones after a downward projection called ulnar styloid.

(4) Hand Bone: divided into the carpal, metacarpal and phalanx.

① carpal carpal bones by eight short bone composition, arranged in two columns each with four each. By the radial lateral ulnar proximal column order of the scaphoid bone, lunate, triquetrum and pisiform; the distal row followed trapezium, trapezoid, head of the lunate bone and hamate. metacarpal bones

② metacarpal five lateral ulnar radial, respectively known as l ~ 5 metacarpal. phalanx phalanges of fingers 14

③ thumb phalanx, and the rest are three each. Sequentially from the proximal to the distal to the proximal phalanx, middle phalanx and distal phalanx.

(c) the lower limb

lower limb 31 on each side, a total of 62.

1. leg with bones including ilium ilium ilium, ischium and pubis

(1) located in the upper part of the hip, is divided into two parts of the iliac body and iliac wing.

(2) after the lower part of the ischial ischium in the hip, is divided into the ischial body and ischial support. pubis pubis of

(3) for the lower front of the hip, divided into one and two.

2. freedom of the proximal portion of the femur, middle Department tibia, fibula and patella distalis bone of the foot can be divided into three parts lower limb

(1) the femur femur in the thigh, the human body is the longest and most rugged long bones. Its length accounts for about 1/4 of the height, is divided into a body and two ends. Proximal femur including the head, neck, and large and small rotor. patella patella

(2) is the body's largest sesamoid bone in the quadriceps tendon, wide under sharp rough front, followed by a smooth articular surface of the femur patella face joint. The patella can touch surface. tibial tibia

(3) is located in the inner side of the leg, as the coarsening of long bones of the triangular prism-like shape, is divided into the body and the both ends. the

(4) fibular fibula is slender, ranking lateral leg, divided into the body and both ends, no load-bearing function. tarsal, metatarsal and toe bones, foot bones

(5) 26. tarsal tarsal bones

① seven on each side, is a short bone considerable hand carpal and tarsal bearing and passes jumping ability, so coarse and understand closely. metatarsal metatarsal bones

② 5, with metacarpal considerable, from the inside to the outside are named sequentially as the first to fifth metatarsal. 14

③ phalanx phalanges of toes.

edit commonly used terms of the human anatomy human body is composed of many systems, organs, and other complex structures. Order to correctly describe the morphology of these structures, it is necessary to have some well recognized uniform standards and descriptive term to have a unified understanding, in order to avoid misunderstanding. Determine the standard for anatomical posture, also provides