2014年6月16日星期一

Fang

based on the research of scholars in recent years, the country of the supplier Kingdom is a Fang Fang Commonwealth, some scholars referred to as "side-nation alliance to the Commonwealth, Mr. Su Bingqi of" ancient "and" Fang "is defined as:" ancient means more higher than the tribal, stable, independent political entity ", the early polis original countries", "Hongshan Culture dating back five thousand years ago, took the lead into the oldest in the world stage. " "The oldest in the world since the era of the the Fang era, the development of ancient China to the Fang phase dating back about four thousand years ago. Kiskiskis

Fang Fang tribe refers to the occasion of the Chinese Xia and Shang the vassal tribes and countries. Nowadays academics on these parties understanding of the country's main excavated bones from the Yin Ruins of the Shang Dynasty late inscriptions Bu multi call these tribal nations, "X side" in the form of so called "side country".

"Fang" is originally developed by the Sun Yi let "Qi Wen example." Book of both economic chapter contains, "party, the country also." square "is the" country "Oracle called" multi-oracle bone inscriptions, called "X side of the country, have not said X side" of the country.

the narrow sense of the country contains only those called "X side of the country, while the broad sense, including all of the Central Plains symmetrical States. Most Fang smaller, only some primitive tribes of the clan, but there are a large minority party country scale, already has a perfect state agencies such as earthworks, Qiang Fang Zhou Fang Fang even up to and then the Central Plains Castles dynasty, the Xia and Shang Dynasty scale to compete on an equal footing. discernible party of more than 150 state-owned. use the name Shang People attach to these countries, he said, which supplier tribe hostile country name more than derogatory said, while providers family friendly the Square State name more than for the neutral name.

judgment oracle bone inscriptions in the country name whether it belongs to a broad party country is mainly based on the following eight kinds of standards:

Oracle said the party's, " the X "," Square X;

Oracle said MG X Hou Hou X, X white "," white X ", the" X child "," sub X;

Oracle said Son, "X sub sub X;

Oracle recorded occurrence of large-scale war and the Shang;

Oracle king," X king;

Oracle records the name of the country of archaeological materials on the permit;

Oracle records the name of the country and the West Zhou Dynasty early masterpieces literature check against the;

additional records rebel providers Slips from Chu "Rong Cheng Shi was King Wen of Zhou Ping clothing nine countries of the Shanghai Museum.

edit this the segments party countries DEFINITIONS the Hemudu the tribe site of

also scholars called this Commonwealth "the tribal countries" or "early states" the so-called "tribal", Evolution from the original era of tribal organizations to descent (族姓) Contact -based social group, it is the early form of the Chinese national supplier Kingdom era, many tribes, mostly referred to as "the parties" inscriptions. supplier tribal people of Yin Social Group refers to the child's surname.

edit this paragraph Heluo party country China five thousand years of the history of civilization from the Yellow Emperor Huangdi sack Chi defeated Yandi Heluo the capital founding, the nature of the country actually is a "federal", composed by many chiefdoms Kingdom. No matter the Heluo for Central Plains region, or four American land, are Fang Guolin Li's situation, this situation has been extended to the Warring States period, the

Following the Yellow Emperor Zhuan Xu, Di Ku, Yao, Shun and Yu succession for the world Castles. During this period, the monarch ascended the throne practiced so-called "demise" system, in fact, these kings from Huangdi tribe, a primitive form of the hereditary system. kings authority from the individual's ability, but more need the support of the parties to the country.

Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties, Luoyang has been Wang Ji Wang Ji within cities is ruled by a number of princes, these areas constitute one party country. these Fang, the more important fee country slip country, Gan, Wu country, l country, Xin country, Cheng et al.

fee States statehood in the early summer, the old haunt this Yanshi of Gou's town southeast, and government Dianzhen along the Western Zhou Dynasty the Zhou royal exterminate fee country, create a slippery country. Spring and Autumn Period, slippery country destroyed by the state of Qin. archaeologists slip country gucheng located the government chomchon Northeast preliminary excavations in 1962 and found that the city wall of the city slightly curved, flat rectangular area of ​​1.4 million square meters. extremely rich cultural relics of the Old City near Yangshao, Longshan culture and the Xia and Shang ruins. the 1963 slippery country gucheng ruins as a provincial cultural relics protection units .

Gan country is unknown, was built during Hu's home, after their old haunt in this territory of Yiyang County, Yu's death, the the Kai passage of the throne, Hu's dissatisfied with Kai led his army with Hu's war in Gan, punish its monarch and their country the Spring and Autumn Period, King Xiang of of sealing his brother tert with Kan reconstruction Gan. soon, tert with rebel killed, Gan perish.

Lau Kwok for the summer on behalf of Liu Feng Guo tired, located in this the town of Yanshi Gou's southwest riverside Liu Jian. archaeological excavations prove Lau Kwok Old City is located in Tao Village North, above the sandbar Liu jianhe West Bank, east, west, north cliff-generation wall, the south wall of rammed earth building, discovered the ruins of building materials and pottery.

Wu, Feng unknown time, so the Hui in this large rural population, Yanshi City. formerly Zheng Guo Fang, posterior Zhou Wang Ji, overrun by the child toward the chaos. Mengjin County, in this

l country so Hui formerly Zheng Guo Fang, Zhou Huan Wang take thought the country. Zhou Hui Wang, l States to support the Prince decadent of chaos after the failure, the duke fled to the state of Chu, the l country extinction.

Xin GUO Hui in this Songxian, which is the homeland of the Yi Yin, the occasion of the death in the Shang and Zhou so

Cheng Hui in this Luoyang southern the re-Li's descendants primary off just the fief of the Spring and Autumn Period, Cheng The monarch has been involved in the League, the demise of time the history books do not record.

divided by the above foreign Heluo Area Tu's Meng Tu's, and Iloilo Yin Rong, such as the establishment of the Kingdom of chiefdom. Warring States period, Fang Guolin Li the situation gradually disappeared after the demise of the Zhou, Qin Heluo Area for the Sanchuan County, and the abolition of the system of Feng, the implementation of the system of prefectures and counties, and the centralized system, the Royal Court and the many parties around Luoyi State ashes.

Edit this paragraph tribe Pradesh - the empire concept of Liangzhu Culture Museum

Mr. Tian Changwu by the pre-Qin "family Pradesh to the Qin and Han" empire "development model, the concept of family Pradesh, reflecting the pre-Qin countries clan characteristics has its unique, but the supplier weeks during the national structure, not all at the level of ethnic states or nations, while there Bangguo, there is the Middle Kingdom or from central dynasty Fang Bangguo, vassal relations, and so to the Empire from the family Pradesh framework failings. Mr. Su Bingqi "ancient - Fang - Empire mode framework, reflect the pre-Qin countries morphological evolution stage has its own rationale," ancient "," side country "words itself is not standardized, with subjective and arbitrary. primitive compared to the national side country is more mature, more developed and the oldest in the world, the advanced countries, Prince of Xia, Shang and Zhou are side ...... so square States era is the era of big powers to do to prepare for the emergence of a unified empire However, the party first appeared previously in the summer.

northern Lower Xiajiadian culture, Liangzhu culture in the south of the Yangtze River, the most typical instance. " Mr. Su "ancient" side country "concept seems usually people use" ancient "the meaning of the words" side country "is different on conventional terms of" ancient "generally refers either before the Xia Dynasty ancient nations, also refers to the Xia and Shang since ancient country, so the term "ancient" and not specific to the first original country. Fang is the term generally refers to the Xia and Shang Dynasties the central dynasty or the Central Kingdom is relatively local, national, business has not yet replaced the summer before, Shang Xia Dynasty is not China, but in the off After the summer, the supplier no longer called Fang, central dynasty. become orthodox status or the Middle Kingdom. The week is also the week off before-the Shang Dynasty Fang, called the "Zhou Fangguo", destroy providers replace orthodox position of the supplier, and the Middle Kingdom. So, Mr. Su Fang "concept, Shang and Zhou historians have used the" country "is also different. the

Mr. Su "ancient", "side country" these words, if not on his instructions down, is difficult to understand, it is easy "side country" concept confused with the general sense of "ancient. In addition, Mr. Su said Fang is more mature, more developed and advanced countries, the Prince of Xia, Shang and Zhou are side "," side country "is a big country. But said that "the party first appeared in the previous summer. Liangzhu culture in the south of the Yangtze River, the northern Lower Xiajiadian culture is the most typical instance. That is to say, in time, the so-called "side country" stage seems to refer to the Shang and Zhou since civilization mature stage, but is not limited to the stage level, it because it is the "first appeared in the summer before"; seems to the Kingdom of Xia, Shang and Zhou, but not limited to, because of the Liangzhu culture in the south of the Yangtze River, the northern Lower Xiajiadian culture is "the most typical instance". In this way, we do not know what the so-called "mature" developed "Advanced" sign? This seems a little fuzzy on the concept of arbitrariness.

norms express Excluding the said inadequate absorption reasonable component, I believe that the evolution of the political entity in ancient China into the future of civilized society should standardize expressed as: Bangguo DD DD empire of the Kingdom of the three phases and three forms in ancient China the first country (or can be referred to as the initial countries) is a small country-style Bangguo, the further development of the nations Kingdom Kingdom through centralized despotism to the Empire after.

Bangguo more prehistoric "stratified society" (some call it "chiefdom", I call it the "center settlement stage"), the most significant difference is that the emergence of mandatory authority, while Bangguo and Kingdom the difference lies in the presence or absence of the monarchy's existence. Kingship Bangguo mandatory power after a process of development, further concentrated expression, only the emergence of kingship that makes the power system really was a pyramid structure. Vertex, king of the subjects as the difference in the kingdom, the kings in power is structural, institutionalized, according to the case of the ruling dynasties of Xia, Shang and Zhou, this kingship or hereditary in the family or clan within. Kingship hereditary structural and institutionalized, before the formation of the "orthodox" consciousness "orthodox" view of dynasty or monarchy. For this the Central Plains and the orthodox view of the origin of kingship, the historical role of the Spring and Autumn Period, its impact on the vassal state, are well worth study.

edit this paragraph earliest Bangguo Longshan era of the earliest nations appear before the Xia Dynasty, the equivalent of archeology on Longshan era. The Longshan era in the various parts of a large number of the city was, according to recent excavations on the the Shanxi Province Xiangfen County Taosi site and Henan Xinmi ancient city of Walled Longshan Culture City address, found in the city palace of Jongmyo like the more than a large rammed Building the base address of the Relics of not only massive city was large rammed earth construction base address of the city into a film, but also a large number of the divide between rich and poor, grade, class burial material, as well as Zhu Shu Tao, small pieces of bronze, dragon, lizard drum, special chime, jade ax. We know that a huge wall, require large-scale organizations to mobilize a large number of labor force, a long-time labor to construction made; rather the palace of Jongmyo like the city wall of the large-scale housing construction, also need to mobilize a large number of human and material resources improve the coordination of social resources, all this shows that behind and disposable mechanism for its protection and operational, it said, the Longshan era the city was large-scale construction of the city is not the area group of the population of the entire village living built, it is the upper nobility and its subsidiaries population living in the construction, but the right to mobilize and dominate the group of the labor force of the entire village, apparently this dominance has some degree of mandatory color. This mandatory powers when the society is divided into class or grade combined a social form, is different from the prehistoric social form called "stratified society" or "chiefdom", according to the author about countries formed two the flag divided DD class, grade or class existence and the establishment of the Mandatory Authority, 12 Longshan era has entered the national social Bangguo. after

Longshan era the Erlitou culture period, that is the history of China, the first dynasty Xia dynasty. Since the Xia Dynasty, ancient China into a national form of kingship, kingship, Kingdom stage, after the Xia, Shang and Zhou Spring and Autumn Period to the Warring States belong to the monarchy by the kingship by the Kingdom to the empire of the transition period, starting from the Qin and Han dynasties of Chinese history into the monarchy Empire.

Longshan period Bangguo, appears in the Yellow River Basin is a group instead of one, they are scattered at around showing Bangguo lined pattern. This is said Yao and Shun period in the history books, "nations" situation. Nations the Wanbang of Wan, but the very words of its multi-without actually refers to, but many the family fall with a small country intricate Miscellaneous at discrete around should be the actual state. This state is linked with the diversity of the origins of Chinese civilization and the multi-center, multi-center on the origins of civilization is linked to the diversity of the prehistoric culture of China.

reason to explore the pattern first appeared in the Yellow River Basin nations civilization in a diverse multi-center, the earliest dynasty DD Xia dynasty only appear in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the Central Plains, which is why it? I think that this is the mechanism of nations toward the Kingdom. In my opinion, the nations after a certain degree, a certain period of development, there is the trend to kingdom and possible, but this trend is likely to become a reality, and is conditional. I have pointed out, the monarchy three sources and composition that kingship from the clan power derived from the right to religious worship, comes from the military command. , religious worship and war

is true in Bangguo formation process played an important role in national origin in the two important mechanisms Bangguo to the Kingdom of the development process, these two mechanisms still play role, especially in one of the war's role is particularly important at this time. The geographical conditions of the Central Plains region determines the geographical land Quartet convergence, but also the Harum off the most intense land Bangguo collision, this aspect of the Central Plains region easy absorption the Quartet of different cultures and civilizations factors, and also to make the Central Plains become the most significant areas of war and conflict. Ancient legends, both the Yanhuang and Chi the War, Yandi and Huangdi Banquan war, or a total of workers with Zhuanxu digoxin's indisputable emperor of the war and so on, have taken place in the Central Plains ; even if Yao, Shun and Yu three seedlings of war, but also the Central Plains War on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Central Plains region of the first in many nations around toward the Kingdom is determined by its geographical conditions, the geographical conditions of the Central Plains geographical foreign war than other parts of the fierce and persistent, war makes the Bangguo Germination kingship development, prompted by the nations toward the Kingdom, which is as the birth of the first kingdom that is the kingdom of the native form of the environment and mechanism. after the birth of

Xia dynasty summer kingdom, the world of the multivariate one of the pattern, its political entity is the coexistence of multiple levels, both in the Central Plains, the Kingdom and around the nations, there has not yet developed into Bangguo prehistoric equality "complex society" (ie "stratified society") even equal the clan tribal society. Due Kingdom compared with Bangguo, the extent of the development of a political entity, the Kingdom is located in a higher-level, and some nations and the Kingdom as well as subordinate, semi-slave relationship or alliance, some serving time in rebel, but as the Central Plains a political center has been formed, the pattern of diversity and unity, the Kingdom is located in the highest vertex, so, at this time and then nations or ethnic state, the polis, the city, country representative of this stage of the country morphology, it is not as good as with the Kingdom more as appropriate.

summer kingdom located in the Central Plains of the rise in the collision with the competition around the various nations, and the establishment of the Xia dynasty have some degree of inhibition of various nations towards the pace of development of the kingdom. Why the words? Since the establishment of the Xia Dynasty, also in the world to establish a new order, this is the "Book of Rites, Li Yun said home world, which on the one hand requires kingship in the royal family in hereditary also summer kingdom the scope of the ritual system of inequality between the various nations into summer kingdom in order to maintain the status of their own political center, but also in order to maintain peace and order in the world, do not want around the side that Bangguo strength and political power Structural much development. Maintain the new order of the Xia dynasty centered "home world" objectively Ogata country towards Kingdom pace inhibition. However, inhibition can only slow down the speed of development and can not be completely prevent Morokata country by the nations toward the Kingdom. Late in the Xia Dynasty, as the supplier of party country, not only gradually toward the kingdom, and Cheng Tang also overturned the summer, replaced, become the new Middle Kingdom. In the late Shang Dynasty, Zhou's also the case. It should be noted that the Xia dynasty late in Ogata States by the the nations development as Wang Guozheng body may not only supplier country, but Cheng Tang of the supplier country, certainly the strength of the most powerful. Emperor Wen, King Wu grams previously existed as a small kingdom will not only Zhouyi Guo, but at this time weeks Ogata most powerful countries, is also an indisputable fact. In addition, the Central Kingdom inhibit the intent of the development of the local country, but the relationship with the Middle Kingdom, exchanges Ogata country and even tribal impossible, in the course of its development from the Middle Kingdom, the influence of the Central Plains region, in this sense, the supplier the emergence of the Kingdom, the supplier replace summer; Zhou Wangguo emergence of weeks to replace the summer, are under the influence of the Xia Dynasty and the Shang dynasty.

is characterized by the royal kingdom is a monarchy form of government in the political system. The power structure of this monarchy form of government to kingship vertex relatively concentrated, however, under the conditions of the restrictions in the early history of the early kingship is not despots and later to have absolute and unlimited power comparable to that. First, early kingship by divine right to the performance of the Shang dynasty, the Shang kings is asked by BU ancestors of God and God the natural God to act. This is the so-called "affairs of state worship and Rong" worship ". So, whether it is the people in the Yin Ruins relics martyrdom with human sacrifice, human sacrifice in Oracle, can not simply be attributed to the brutal despot, but a religious act, is the so-called religious ritual. Second, the early kingship subject to customary law and traditional ritual system constraint, that is to say, the king must follow the traditions and customs of the ancestors handed down, and the gradual formation of the ritual rule and dominate people. Should the violation Etiquette system acting on their own, autocratic, they are not considered legitimate degrees tyrant. Third, early kingship in varying degrees by the constraints of the other forces. Such the early years of the Shang Dynasty "Yiyin put Taijia" Tong Palace, in the Oracle Bone Inscription Yiyin high sacrificial that status of Yiyin. Yiyin original Maid Accompanying Chen Xin's due to the Shang Dynasty and Xin's marriage, Yi Yin was able to assist Cheng Tang into suppliers to phase dealing with military and political affairs. "Yi Yin to put Taijia" illustrates supplier Daughters of the party "in the early and Colonial Secretary strength, powerful. Pan Geng moved to Yin the "Pangeng articles can also see the nobility to contain the power of the king. The "under Pangeng speech object the" Bang Bo, teachers, a hundred deacons of "" Pangeng "object" reign ", and belong to the same object" Pangeng "aristocratic column. The gist of this two nobles are advised not to encourage and even incite all the people moved to Yin discontent. In "on Pangeng" Finally, Pangeng nobles well each party's long, hard work, and listen to his command. He to reiterate Shangshanfawu nobles things seriously and abide by the duties, speak appropriately, otherwise you will be punished, regret and. From these words, we can see that the monarchical power that monarchy is the top of the aristocracy. "Pangeng articles also mentioned" Koga kings also except Figure any old person of political ". That is, the Merchant King has always been with the "old man" that old veterans, hereditary aristocracy of political tradition. Inscriptions in Yin Ruins, both the former king Jiuchen supplier "Enshrined situation, there are a separate worship Jiuchen. This is because to be able to cause trouble for the disaster in the Shang kings, not only have the supplier's Xiangong old king, also with total government Xiangong the old king Jiuchen. These old veterans is powerful. In short, we are neither able to the early kingship under the monarchy form of government to understand for the future generations of despotism, but also do not have the presence of some of the constraints of the royal rigidly interpreted as the democracy of the country.

royal kingdom after imperial empire, the ancient Chinese empire stage began in the Warring States after the Qin Dynasty. The polity Empire is a centralized despotism. The causes of this centralized despotism, we can explore all angles from all aspects, I think that the implementation of the system of prefectures and counties, at least during the Warring States Period and Granting Land system features the state-owned land system implemented, and the Qin Dynasty this world , does the king of clay; rate soil coast, Could nobleman "(" Zuo Zhao Gong seven), the role of political ideas, are Qin and Han despotism centralized state formed by the foundation and conditions.

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