2014年6月16日星期一

Electrified railway

Chinese name: the electrified railway English name: the electric railway defined: regional and inter-regional or inter-city railway electric traction. Not including track-oriented, electricity is the traction energy urban rail transit or condition enterprises internal transport routes. Applied sciences: power (a subject); distribution and electricity (two subjects)

electrified railway, also known as electric railway, is dominated by these two electric locomotives or EMU train (that is commonly known as the train) by walking the railroad. Electrified railway traction power electric locomotives, locomotive itself without energy, the energy required by the electric traction power supply system. Traction power supply system of traction substation and catenary two parts. The substation is located near a railway track, it will be the current delivered by the high-voltage transmission lines from the power plant, sent to the railway contact over the Internet. Catenary equipment directly supplying electric power to electric locomotives. the

electrified rail (electric railway) high-speed of electrified railway

electrified railway traction power electric locomotives, locomotive itself without energy, the energy required by the electric traction power supply system. Electrified railway, also known as the electric railway, is dominated by both electric locomotive or EMU train (that is commonly known as the train), the railway walk.

composed of traction power supply system mainly refers to the traction substation and catenary two parts. substation located near a railway track,

it electrical energy sent by the high voltage transmission lines from the power plant, sent to the railway contact over the Internet. Catenary equipment directly supplying electric power to electric locomotives. Along both sides of the railway line, erected a row of pillars, hanging above the metal wire, is a catenary, it can also be seen as the electrified railway artery. Pantograph electric locomotives use of the roof to receive power from the catenary, traction train operation. Traction power supply system according to the the Catenary current system DC system and exchange system has two kinds. DC high-voltage, three-phase power system after the in traction substation buck and rectifier for DC catenary, which is the development of the earliest a current system, and less use after the 1950s. The AC system is a high-voltage, three-phase power substation buck and become a single-phase supply AC power to the catenary. Higher supply voltage AC system, has developed rapidly. China's electrified railway traction power supply system from the outset, using a single-phase industrial frequency (50 Hz) at 25 kV AC system, this choice is conducive to the future development of the electric railway. different railway, electric railway traction trains run

and traditional steam locomotive or diesel car is getting power from the external power supply and traction power supply system, railway train running electric locomotive traction. It includes electric locomotive maintenance facilities, traction power supply system, all kinds of electrical installations as well as the corresponding railway communications, signals and other equipment. The electrified railway transport capacity, travel speed, less energy consumption, low operating costs, good working conditions, etc., the large volume of the main line railway and has a steep slope, grew up in the mountains of the tunnel line railway electrification, technically, have significant economic superiority. classification

can use the following method to the electrified railway classification:

power wire type: third rail, overhead cables

Supply type: DC power supply, the AC supply

track supply electrified railway

orbit powered electrification Railway usually laying additional supply rail, used to connect to the grid and locomotives and locomotive power supply, also known as the third rail power supply, this track is known as the third rail.

overhead cables powered overhead cable connected in the power supply of electrified railway electricity grid, divided into two types, flexible and rigid, electric locomotive or EMU catenary pantograph connection through the frame from which to take power.

overhead cables and overhead cables to Hong Kong and Taiwan and in mainland China, commonly known as catenary power supply. In mainland China, the overhead power lines and overhead cables generally refers to the high-voltage transmission lines.

two wire type, and eventually through the normal orbit train ground to form a loop. Minority railway using a fourth track (such as the London Underground) as a current loop. The overhead cables advantage of

, that is, at the same time when the high-voltage transmission channel, such as Japan Keikyu line. early electrified railway

DC power supply using a relatively low-voltage DC power supply. Locomotive or EMU motor directly connected to the power grid on the main line through parallel or electrified railway

series resistance in the motor and relay control. usually

tram and metro voltage is 600 volts and 750 volts, the railway with 1500 volts and 3000 volts. Vehicles using rotary converter to convert alternating current to direct current. Now generally used the semiconductor rectifier to complete this work.

DC supply system is relatively simple, but it requires thicker wires, the shorter distance between stations, and the dc line has a significant resistance loss.

in some parts of the Netherlands, Japan, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, 1500V DC a few areas in France, Netherlands actual voltage 1600V to 1700V.

Belgium, Italy, Poland, the Czech Republic, northern Slovakia, the former Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Union 3000V DC.

low frequency alternating current in some European countries using low-frequency alternating current to power electric locomotive. Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Norway and Sweden with 15 kV 16.67 Hz (one-third of the grid frequency 50Hz) AC. U.S. 11 kV or 12.5 kV 25 Hz AC. Locomotive motor controlled by a variable transformer.

frequency alternating Hungary the once 50 Hz AC electrified railway in the 1930s. However, until 50 years after being widely used.

Currently, some electrification locomotive using a transformer and rectifier to provide low-voltage pulsating DC power to the motor, the motor speed is controlled by adjusting the transformer. Others use SCR or FET to produce mutations exchanges or variable frequency AC power supplied to the AC motor of the locomotive.

more economical form of supply, but there are also disadvantages: external power system the phase load range, but would also produce significant electromagnetic interference.

China, France, the United Kingdom, Finland, Denmark, the former Soviet Union, the former Yugoslavia, Spain (standard rail high railway segment), Japan (northeast, Joetsu, Hokkaido new trunk and North Lu new trunk light Isawa east), the use of single-phase 25 kV 50 Hz power supply, the Taiwan High Speed ​​Rail, Taiwan Railway Administration, South Korea, Japan (Tokaido, Sanyo and Kyushu Shinkansen and Hokuriku Shinkansen Karuizawa west) use 25 kV 60 Hz single-phase power supply, typically use single-phase 12.5 kV and 25 kV 60 Hz AC. 20 kV 50 Hz AC northeastern Japan, Hokkaido, Hokuriku region, the the Kyushu region using 20 kV 60 Hz AC.

a variety of system power supply because there are so many power supply, sometimes even within a country in different ways (such as Japan, south of Kanto 60Hz, northeast and north of Hokuriku 50Hz), so trains often must A power supply is turned to another power supply. One approach is at the transfer station to replace locomotives, of course, this is very convenient. The electrified railway

Another method is to use locomotives to support a variety of power supply system. In Europe, usually supports four power supply system (DC 1.5 kV, 3 kV DC, AC of 15 kilovolts 16.67 Hz, AC 25 KV 50 Hz) locomotives so that it from a power supply system to the other a time you can not stay.

JNR AC DC corresponding train locomotive in the early 1960s., but it was only the corresponding 50/60 a Hertz, commonly known as "single AC-DC type. Until the tail was successfully developed in the 1960s in Japan electrochemical interval walking with a variety of power supply system (1.5 kV DC, 25 kV 50/60 Hz AC), commonly known as "dual AC and DC type, and begin to introduce the time the amount of production train locomotive series, but by JR bureaus operating in 1987, due to the expected passenger tram without further national mobilization or walking, plus dual AC and DC high cost of the tram, so in addition to the national railway Dynasty The 415 Department still production after the 1500 Fan Desk and JR East E653 Department and DC-passenger tram new JR travelers club with single cross, double cross dc tram.

edit the history of the DC power supply during the trade fair in Berlin in May 1879 shows the first electrified railway. This is about 300m oval railway gauge 1m by the 150V electric railway

external DC power supply via a third rail power supply, two rails as track circuits; electric locomotive only 945kg, this electrified railway short, but to lay the foundation of the electrified railway. built a 2.45km electrified railway in the German company Siemens Licht non Gould - Military Academy in 1881, the same year, the first powered overhead wires appeared in France in London 500m long tram line, and put into commercial operation in 1885.

AC power supply period in 1903, Hungary appeared the three-phase AC electric locomotive powered by overhead wires, but soon stopped, is too difficult to repair.

1932, Hungary First successfully adopted in electrified railway 16kV power frequency single-phase AC. the years of

1950, France, through research and feasibility studies, the construction of the experimental line 25KV single-phase power frequency, and in 1953, the single-phase AC the electric 25KV80Hz current system for the southeast line, received good economic benefits.

edit this paragraph advantage of electrified railway is a modern rail transport, and is currently used in internal combustion compared to railway steam locomotive traction, technical and economic superiority. the

can significantly increase the transport capacity

external power for power due to the electric locomotive, it does not require its own power means, can reduce the locomotive DeadWeight, so that the load under the same conditions of each axis, the shaft power is larger, the current domestic electric locomotive 900 kW, 500 kW diesel locomotive the same traction weight, the higher the speed. While at the same speed, the better traction. SS8 electric locomotive with passenger sustained speed of 100 km/and DFll type diesel locomotive is only 65.5 km/h. From freight locomotive power to compare SS4 electric locomotive 6400 kilowatts DFl0 diesel locomotive 3245 kilowatts, and forward-type steam locomotive only 2,200 kilowatts. As can be seen from the above figures, because the power of the electric locomotive, so it's great traction and sustained high speed, thus greatly improving the transport capacity.

save energy and reduce transportation costs

rail transport is a large national energy consumption. Therefore, the choice of the type of traction power for the rational use of energy is important. The dynamic electric traction

electricity from the perspective of the development of China's energy production, an increase of 32% of the generating capacity of the Eighth Five-Year Plan "period, an increase of 13% raw coal, crude oil increased by 5.1%; electric traction power consumption in 1995 accounted for only national generating capacity 0.64%; macro energy structure, the crude oil reserves far less than coal, hydro, and some can not directly use energy, water, land and air transport and mobile machinery requires a large amount of liquid fuel and, therefore, the electric traction most reasonable traction power. About 1/3 less than other traction electric traction energy consumption per ton kilometers, maintenance costs per million ton-km road transport business in 1990, the report on the accounts, the electric locomotive is 100%, the diesel locomotive 136.9%, steam locomotive 135.1%.

conducive to the protection of the environment, and increase the safety reliability

electric locomotive no emissions, smoke, air pollution, another quieter, particularly through the long tunnel, the advantage is more significant, which not only improves the driver working conditions and passenger comfort, minimize the extent and cities along the railway, suburban pollution. The electric locomotive is equipped with a high-power electrical braking device can be used to grow up downhill speed adjustment, which can greatly improve the safety of the train running.

edit this paragraph momentum electrified railway electric locomotive as traction power, the prime mover is not installed on the locomotive, the power required by the electrified railway electric traction power supply system. Along both sides of the railway line, erected a row of pillars, hanging above the metal wire, is a catenary, it can also be seen as the electrified railway artery. Pantograph electric locomotives use of the roof to receive power from the catenary, traction train operation. Traction power supply system according to the the Catenary current system DC system and exchange system has two kinds. DC high-voltage, three-phase power system after the in traction substation buck and rectifier for DC catenary, which is the development of the earliest a current system, and less use after the 1950s. The AC system is a high-voltage, three-phase power substation buck and become a single-phase supply AC power to the catenary. Higher supply voltage AC system, has developed rapidly. Electrified railway traction power supply system from the outset, using a single-phase industrial frequency (50 Hz) at 25 kV AC system, this choice is conducive to the future development of the electric railway.

edit this paragraph simulation platform for electrified railway dynamic physical simulation (physics simulation of transient system of electric railway) reflects the power supply system and electric traction the whole process and the relationship between dynamic physical simulation system used to access and optimize the operation of the electric railway major technical parameters. Divided into two types of dynamic physical simulation of DC and AC electric railway.

DC electrified railway dynamic simulation of the dynamic simulation of Taiwan DC electrified railway station by the Railway Institute in Moscow in the former Soviet Union in 1950, started to develop.

simulation Desk the various aspects Profile

using similar standards, according to a certain proportion consistent with the actual analog substation voltage, internal resistance, catenary and rail resistance, resistance, current, the locomotive F1, I1, developed include 5 substations and 125km long catenary, rail lines and electric locomotives analog station the principle structure shown in Figure 2. (1) power supply system: traction substation to four feeders powered by AC power supply by the bridge rectifier and the internal resistance; catenary and rail with a 10 step selector, which each layer has 25 branch total of 250, each on behalf 0.5km, the first layer of each branch resistance analog 10mm2 ~ 738mm2 equivalent copper conductor cross-section, the second layer of analog P45 and P60 rail. Line longitudinal sectional ②: the use of a series of series and parallel resistors form - Potentiometer, on which the different positive and negative voltages similar to simulate different upper and lower ramp resistance, so that each 0.5km having different ramp. ③ electric locomotive traction train: The the locomotive main circuit route map 2 locomotive resistance and current to simulate the voltage UkM, the formation of the current (M represents an analog value). Wire track powered

electrified railway track powered usually laying additional supply rail used to connect to the grid and locomotives and locomotive power supply, also known as the third rail power supply, this track is called third rail. the the overhead cables

overhead cables powered

electric power supply connected to the electrified railway online, divided into two types, flexible and rigid, electric locomotive or EMU catenary pantograph connection through the frame from which to take power.

overhead cables and overhead cables to Hong Kong and Taiwan and in mainland China, commonly known as catenary power supply. In mainland China, the overhead power lines and overhead cables generally refers to the high-voltage transmission lines.

two wires the type

eventually form a loop through the train normal orbit ground. Minority railway using a fourth track (such as the London Underground) as a current loop. The overhead cables advantage of

, that is, at the same time when the high-voltage transmission channel, such as Japan Keikyu line.

edit this paragraph of electrified railway development in China starting from 1958, the first electrified railway built to Kazakhstan large high-speed rail officially opened on December 1, 2012, the total mileage of electrified railway has exceeded 48,000 km in the past 54 years, beyond the original electric railway the world's first in Russia, emerged as the first in the world. [1]

first electrified railway completed by August 15, 1961 China's first electrified railway - Po wind. Electrified railway

electrified railway power supply system was originally designed 3000 DC system. Later learned that France, the former Soviet Union, Japan has successfully used the current system - power frequency single tooth exchange system, after experts and professors repeatedly argued contrast, in April 1975, decided to switch 25KV-frequency single-phase AC system the determination of the power supply system, to avoid the development of China's electrified railway detours, and lay a good foundation for the development of China's electrified railway. completed in March

1958 preliminary design, construction commenced on June 15 of the same year, after two years of hard work of the builders are struggling, the successful building of China's first electrified railway on May 14, 1960, after more than a year the trial run, and delivery operations in 1961, and since opened a prelude to the construction of China's electrified railway. the mid-1960s

electrified railway construction, in order to accelerate the construction of the Southwest, communication southwest region and national commodity exchange, electrified railway section of the State of

Lu Feng to Chengdu, Baoji-Chengdu Railway Electrification Railway launched.

1966 March electrification study, preliminary design completed in December of the same year, in December 1968 Guangyuan to Ma Kok dam electrification project started. Electrification project sections, to build Guangyuan to Mianyang segment, first, after the construction of Guangyuan to wind state segment, and finally the construction of Mianyang, Chengdu section. After seven years of hard work, on July 1, 1975, 676Km and PCC electrified railway line was opened to traffic. in September

1973 sun safety line, Xiangfan to Ankang, Xiangfan-Chongqing Railway in September 1975, March 1978 Shi-Tai line Shijiazhuang Yangquan October 1979 Baolan line Baoji to Tianshui segment has commenced construction. By the end of 1980, the total built electrified railway 1679.6Km. the

1985 year alone the Beijing-Qinhuangdao line, the Chengyu line (Jiang) paragraph (Qing), the Guiyang-Kunming line your (male South) water (west) of the focal line and too long (Governance North) month (Hill) 4 electrified railway Total 1169.23Km to delivery operations. The 10 line of Total 2795.76Km electrified railway completed and delivery operations

20 1990s. August 1st

2008 In the opening and operation of the Beijing-Tianjin high-speed electrified railway. In April 1

2009 Hewu the opening and operation of high-speed electrified railway. In December 26,

2009 the opening and operation of the Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed electrified railway. February 6, 2010, the opening and operation of the Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed electrified railway. Electrified railway in China has entered the era of high-speed electrified. electrified railway traffic speed electrified railway of

Edit this paragraph development

high-speed electrified railway (high speed electric railway) 200km/h ~ 350 km/h. The general railway traffic speed at 100km/h and less known as the normal speed, known as fast or quasi-high speed of 200 km/h or less, known as high-speed of over 200 km/h to 350 km/h. Since the beginning of the end of the 1950s, some of the technology developed countries began to study and construction of high-speed electrified railway, to the end of 1997, the world is about 4 400 km of new high-speed railway, the Japanese Shinkansen 1952km, the French TGV 1282km, Germany ICE 427km, Italian ETR 237km, Spain AVE 471km. The end of the 20th century, some of the higher level of technology countries are studying a new magnetic levitation train, which runs at up to 4 handsome 400km/h to 500 km/h. China has also launched a thematic research work in this regard.

edit this paragraph significance electric locomotive EMU itself without a prime mover and fuel specific power (per unit weight of power), compared with diesel locomotives and diesel railcars, sustained speed under the same or similar continuous tractive (uniaxial meter) more than twice as high as the train pulling the same weight can achieve a higher maximum rated speed (or maximum operating speed), and a wide constant power speed range electric braking power, so starting, braking and processing deceleration performance than superior. Electric Traction, gallop, Dora's features can more fully meet the rail transport to improve traffic speed to increase the weight of the train and increase traffic density requirements, and thus more conducive to: significantly increase the travel speed of passenger transport and high speed the delivery of value-added goods transport; organization coal, building materials, grain and other bulk goods efficient, fast reload direct transport; Extension of rail transport play a speed advantage, has introduced a new transport, marketing reach, enhance its transport competitive strength in the market. Especially rail transport and highways, the coordinated development of air transport "transport corridor" to attract large and medium-sized cities and the the suburban transport a large number of passenger interchange of high-speed and fast electric train, can significantly improve the conditions of people travel, ease congestion and reduce atmospheric pollution, conserve limited resources such as oil and land. Major national economic and social benefits to this beyond the enterprise efficiency, Railway Public Further understanding of government and society in the wake of developed countries for railway development, access to funding and support, and plays an important role. an investment

electrified railway electrification after the completion of the traffic and transport revenue, low transportation costs, the required investment can be repaid in the short term to (depending on volume size, typically 5 to 10 years, some only 2 years to 3 years). Lower transport costs, mainly electric locomotive motor car directly using external power supply, the structure is simple, the friction of small, low acquisition costs, long service life, and thus low maintenance costs, including energy costs, maintenance costs, depreciation charges; fast turnover of the rolling stock, high equipment utilization; passenger electric locomotive shaft, axle load light, speed and increase the cost of the Public Works and less; air-conditioned buses, refrigerated trucks from the date of the OCS powered generator car, compared with plus hanging save costs and capacity.

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