2014年6月16日星期一

Eastern Railway

railway in the Middle East is a railway Tsarist Russia built on the territory of our country in order to plunder and aggression control Far East. Middle Eastern Railway is referred to the Chinese Eastern Railway "and therefore also for the Eastern Railway, Eastern Province Railway. In 1896-1903, Russia built by Harbin as the center, west to Manchuria, the east of Suifenhe, south of Dalian. After the Russo-Japanese War, the southern section (Changchun to Dalian) share of Japan, known as the South Manchurian Railway. The Republic later renamed East Province, China Railway, referred to as "Middle Eastern Railway. Tsarist Russia in order to plunder and aggression control the Far East and in the 1896-1903 year (the end of the Qing Dynasty) built a railway in the territory of China, Harbin is west to Manchuria

Middle Eastern Railway, east to the Suifenhe the south Dalian; from Russia Chita China Manzhouli, Harbin, Suifenhe arrived in Vladivostok, Russia (Vladivostok), the Trans-Siberian Railway in China for some. Trans-Siberian Railway the October Revolution,

, the northern section of the Chinese and the Soviet Union jointly. The victory of the war across the board collectively referred to as the Chinese Changchun Railway. Eastern Railway Tsarist Russia from Russia Chita China Manzhouli, Harbin, Suifenhe arrived in Vladivostok, Russia (Vladivostok), the Trans-Siberian Railway built in the late Qing Dynasty in China for some. to Harbin from Manchuria,

Suifenhe is a railway line in the Middle East, a total length of more than 1480 km; Changchun to Dalian by the Harbin railway extension in the Middle East, said the South Manchurian Railway, a total length of over 940 kilometers.

Middle East the railway roadmap

the the railway staff photo in the Middle East [1]

edit this paragraph Railway big Qing Guangxu twenty-two years (1896 AD), the Qing government special envoy Li Hongzhang Russia congratulate tsar coronation signed with Russia, "China and Russia against an enemy mutual assistance treaty "(referred to as the" Russian Secret Treaty "), allow Russia to the construction of the Eastern Railway. Railway companies in the Middle East in August

1898 Eastern Railway broke ground for the center to Harbin points east and west, the southern three-wire, construction by six simultaneous opposite. Northern trunk (Manzhouli to Suifenhe) the Southern Manchurian Extension (the Kuancheng child to Lushun) and other extension, the whole length of over 2500 km, using Russian-made 1524 mm gauge and feeder connected, just as the "T" shaped, located in northeast China vast areas. July 14th

1903 years, the Middle East Railway opened to traffic, and began operations. After the Russo-Japanese War (1904), Tsarist Russia South Manchurian Railway Changchun to Dalian segment transferred to Japan. the Eastern Railway

1920 years, said before the Chinese Eastern Railway, referred to as the railway in the Middle East or in East Road, Changchun segment north of the Chinese and the Soviet Union jointly operated. February 28

1922 years, the Beijing government and the Soviet Union, the Far East two government representatives signed agreements outline the Middle East Railway provides: Middle railway owned by the Chinese government; Eren all the railway shares recovered back five years by the Chinese government ; before the road is not completely recovered, two representatives of the government of the Soviet Union, the Far East have the right Highways took part in the road; East Road, the negative Governments and foreign debt, by the Chinese government fully responsible. In March 1935, the Soviet Union to co-operating in the Middle East and the Soviet Union Railway price sold to Japan. Middle East Rail Day bribed In August,

1945 Middle Eastern Railway renamed the Chinese Changchun Railway, Central CPSU tube. December 31

1952 years, ending in the CPSU tube railway in the Middle East is completely recovered by the Chinese under Chinese all.

edit this paragraph century of vicissitudes railway in the Middle East [2]

Middle Eastern Railway, also known as the Eastern Railway, Eastern Province, railway, after the end of the Russo-Japanese War, said the Middle East railway, that the meaning of the northeastern part of China Railway. Middle Eastern Railway tsarist Russia in the early 20th century, the end of the 19th century, is to grab the resources of Northeast China, the Far East hegemony and built a "D" shaped rail. West of railway lines in the Middle East by Manzhouli immigrants, through the middle of Hailar, Zalantun, Angangxi, Qiqihar, Harbin until Suifenhe outbound crossing of Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces; branch line south from Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang, until Lushunkou, runs through Jilin and Liaoning provinces. Railway lines in the Middle East and the branch line length of 2437 km, is part of the Tsarist Empire Trans-Siberian railway to link the two continents of Europe and Asia. purpose

Tsarist Russia built railway in the Middle East, to seize the hegemony of the Far East, further plunder the rich resources of the northeastern part of China, and to strengthen the economic aggression and political invasion of Northeast China, Northeast China into colonies and spheres of influence of the Tsarist empire, to achieve carve up China, wild ambition to dominate the Far East and the Pacific. Middle Eastern Railway Tsarist Russia sucking the blood and sweat of the Chinese People's pipeline also expand the invasion of China forces in the wire. Leave it to the grave national disaster for the Chinese people, resulting in a poor and weak in China, more poverty and backwardness, a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society further into the abyss. In May,

1896 Czar Nicholas II's coronation, the Li Hongzhang on behalf of the Qing government to participate in the coronation. Under coercion in Czarist Russia, Li on behalf of the Qing government to sign the humiliating "Russian Secret Treaty. After that, the Qing government was forced to sign a "province of China and Russia jointly organized by Eastern Railway Company contract" a series of unequal treaties, so that the Tsarist Russia seized many of the privileges of the Middle East Railway construction in China's northeast. Eastern Province, the first railway towards immigrants from Manzhouli, Hailar Figure Bock, Zalantun Angangxi, Harbin, yimianpo Hengdaohezi, Muling until Suifenhe exit. On April 15th 1901, the first trip out by the Harbin the train arrives Zalantun station its official opening on marks Zalantun history.

Zalantun Station, West Railway line in the Middle East is an important intermediate station. It is located in the Greater Xing'an Mountains and Songnen Plain binding strip, the first station of the railway through the Middle East the Daxinganling tunnel southward into the Songliao Plain, but also into the throat of Hulun Buir Grassland and abroad Manzhouli, the location is very important. Past the train here stoker add water, maintenance, rotation and passengers should transfer resupply. Middle Eastern Railway upper management fancy mild climate, pleasant scenery, transportation is very convenient Zalantun this treasure, here turned into a summer resort resort here have built a drawbridge, the Middle East Railway Club, Middle railway Tyurin summer hotel, Tsarist Russia Railway Primary School, railway workers in the Middle East, residential, railway employees health branch of a large number of buildings, and still retain the relics of that year construction sites, has become an autonomous region-level key cultural relics protection units. [3]

Middle East railway Tsarist Russia in the 1896-1903 period in order to plunder and aggression control Far East built on the territory of our country and a railway, railway Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and the Japanese occupation, operating more than fifty years old. Completely return to China on December 31, 1950, after the founding of New China. Middle Eastern Railway is referred to the Chinese Eastern Railway "and therefore also for the Eastern Railway, Eastern Province Railway. Middle Eastern Railway to Harbin as the center, west to Manchuria, south to Dalian. Starting at Manzhouli via Harbin to Suifenhe Route railway branch line from Harbin and then to Dalian, Changchun, the total length of nearly 2,500 kilometers.

edit this paragraph Russian Secret Treaty eastward expansion of the 1840s, the invasion of Russia forces extends into China's Heilongjiang River. Starting from the middle of the nineteenth century, in just half a century, Russia has forced the Chinese government signed the "Sino-Russian Treaty of Aihui", "Sino-Russian Treaty of Beijing" series of unequal treaties, the north of Heilongjiang east of the Ussuri River over one million square kilometers of Chinese territory into the territory of Russia. In later years, Tsarist Russia, with its military strength, together with other imperialist countries continue to Chinese aggression and expansion. Coveted the the fertile Northeast China Suiwei Tsarist Russia the.

Tsarist Russia in order to enhance the strength of its foreign expansion, further aggression and occupation of northeast China and North Korea, and was also coveted Japanese confrontation, the two places, in February 1891, decided to build the Trans-Siberian Railway.

it announced the construction of this railway regarding world events, put the future of the railway as a tool to strengthen the Russian Pacific Fleet, so that Russia can control all the waters of the Pacific Ocean international business activities. In June of the same year, broke ground on the Trans-Siberian Railway. In 1894, the road has been built to the Baikal region. According to the original plan, the east of the railway before the twists and turns along the Shilka River and Heilongjiang north shore line along the Ussuri River and then the east coast of south directly Vladivostok to Khabarovsk. However, bent on occupation of Northeast China territorial Tsarist Russia Siberian Railway, but wanted to take a straight line across the Northeast, up to Vladivostok. This can not only shorten the distance, and the construction is also easy, but the most important thing is it can northeast China's control in their own hands. Then Tsarist Russia an excuse for the original lot complex terrain, the weather is cold, to China Jiede roads in the Chinese territory for Russia. railway

Jiede roads on both ends of Northeast China built a plan Siberian Railway connected, dream Tsarist Russia, premeditated.

⑴ February 1891, Tsarist Russia decided to build the Trans-Siberian Railway, wanted in the future railway particular station; construction of a stretching in China's Middle Eastern Railway Building

Extension in order to "direct and densely populated of the Chinese Mainland provinces Tsusho";

⑵ 1893 In February, the Russian scholar Bard Maye Fu said Russian Finance Minister is responsible for the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway Witt suggestions: Siberian railway is not only to repair to Vladivostok, and should Baikal China 1800 versts south-depth, direct Gansu, Lanzhou ... The ... ";

⑶ 1895 In the fall of Czarist Russia without the consent of the Chinese government, it is sent to northeast China to carry out investigation. The Qing government made representations to the Russian Embassy replied that made the Trans-Siberian Railway, Russia Hing possible future in the Northeast future Hing made various rail phase, "since Manchuria Railway should be best to go through over the plot number end, pre-exploration", To the Qing government Instructions local authorities "release unimpeded," according to their means care and;

⑷ After the war, from China to Japan indemnity of 220 million taels of silver (including Japan refunded the Liaodong Peninsula cord of 3 10002000), the Qing government finances constraints. Tsarist Russia. Taking advantage of it, "China and Russia four per cent loan contract signed with the Qing government to provide loans, in order to control China. Later, Russia, France established control by Russia in the Russo-Chinese Bank, the bank has privileges can repair railway in China, the mines, set up factories, or collecting taxes. This bank became the tools of the Tsarist Russia Jiede roads;

⑸ 1896 4 18, Russia officially proposed to the Qing government, asked the Chinese government to the Manchurian railway lines and leasehold extension to the Russian company, and not let the other foreigners to participate in . The Tsarist Russia coveted northeast China's ambitions this case has been exposed.

grab the right-of-way for Russia to be rental Northeast Xing build railways things, the Qing government had heard. But it is worried that this becomes a precedent, serious consequences, so later on the grounds of "self-made" Czarist Russia rejected the request. At this time, the Russian government then its diplomatic envoys to the Qing government entanglement, sly (guǐ) said the only China to meet the requirements of Russia, "Russia to protect the Chinese, to avoid further conflict with Japan and other countries. Tsarist Russia envoys to China several times to the Yamen, threatened refused Russia requirement will cause very serious consequences, threats and intimidation.

Sino-Japanese war, China was Japan defeated the humiliating Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed. At that time, the Qing government was argued before the implementation of the reform of the Sino-Japanese War "restrict them," the foreign policy, and take the alliance with foreign policy. This talk of the "alliance" was the Madding Crowd (xiāo) moment, most advocates of alliance with Russia, as it used to "help" China forced Japan to refund the Liaodong Peninsula. The Qing government also believes that as long as Russia can help attack the Japanese threat Japanese, China is ready to work with Russia signed a secret treaty, alliance. Later, Li Hongzhang ambassador to Russia Beijing Contacts Western containment Japan "thinking. April 20th

1896 years, Li Qing court He arrived in St. Petersburg, also bear the alliance mission secret treaty signed with Russia in addition to congratulate the new Tsar Nicholas II coronation. In this case, Russia would like to take to the roads of the representations, moved from Beijing to St. Petersburg. Tsarist government in order to win the concession in China, Li Hongzhang and his party in every possible way to rope and bribery in drawing Chinese envoy talks plan, proposed to "the most influential figures in the missions suite, or through them to their the generosity of friends and allies promised. " Talks, the tsar and his Chancellor of the Exchequer Witt both pressure and cheat on Li Hongzhang, said Russia through northeast China to build a railway reached Vladivostok, in order to "protect the Chinese, if something happens in the future China, Russia, but also to facilitate the" Help " Russia and China are favorable, is also said to Li Hongzhang, things Lee three million rubles, "remuneration", and proposed by the Russo-Chinese Bank to host the road things.

At that time, the Qing government bent on alliance with Russia against Japan, and Russia bent on road to win in China through an alliance with China's empty. It tightly allied with 借地 buckle, said China and Russia alliance must Jiede to Russian roads. Li Witt blackmail the the funeral rights landless "Russian Secret Treaty signed inducements.

Russian Secret Treaty and other "Russian Secret Treaty" (formerly known as the "enemies of Islam mutual assistance treaty") was signed in Moscow on June 3, 1896, the main content; ⑴ the Japanese invasion of Russia, or China, or North Korea, are will be considered concerning the Treaty, this about should be implemented immediately; ⑵ the two sides to agree on common action, unless the consent of the other, may not be alone to copulate (gòu) and; ⑶ wartime Russian warships will be allowed access to any port in China; ⑷ In order to facilitate the transit of Russian troops and munitions, the Chinese government allows building a railway line leading to Vladivostok through China's Heilongjiang Province and Jilin Province; ⑸ usually Russia reserves the right to make use of the the railway personnel carriers and transport supplies; ⑹ the treaty approved since the Qing dynasty 4 provides that the date of effect from. Can be clearly seen from the secret treaty provisions, the meaning of Tsarist Russia is not in alliance with the Chinese system of day, but in the to China 借地 roads.

in September of the same year, China and Russia signed a "jointly organized by Eastern Railway Corporation Contract Constitution, stipulating that Russia building rights and the right to operate the proposed Middle East Railway and appointed to the Russo-Chinese Bank contractors; railway stock nominally belong Sino-Russian Business China (China invested 15 million taels of silver stake, the Russo-Chinese Bank partnership business); eight decades extent, after the expiration of the railway and its property wholly owned by the Chinese; since the opening of the day, after 36 years, the Chinese government has the right to the "Railway to the price to recover. At the same time, the contract also provides for China to provide road construction sites, land prices "not satisfied"; railway width (broad gauge) railway with Russia's domestic driving rules; Russia the right to free personnel carriers; Russia to use the railway cargo destined for Russia Yigai tax-free, and so on, so that China's lost in railway lot sovereignty. "Russian Secret Treaty" meet the desire of Tsarist Russia's aggression in Northeast China road, but the ambitions of the foreign expansion of Tsarist Russia does not and convergence.

edit this paragraph the southern Manchuria Extension

the Middle Eastern Railway employees Garden Street residential site (7)

Luda located in the Liaodong Peninsula and the southern end of the (now Lushun and Dalian areas), control the crucial point of the Yellow recapped the Bohai throat, is a natural seasons Port , it is coveted for Tsarist Russia. "Russian Secret Treaty" signed, Russia won the construction rights and the right to operate the railway in the Middle East, but in order to monopolize the entire Northeast, and further expansion in the Far East and the Pacific, it deliberately want to seek a military port in the Yellow Sea, China. For example, the Tsarist Russia Foreign Minister 穆拉维约夫, back in Russia proposed to the the Chinese northeast Jiede roads, said: "Only a firm foothold firmly Lushunkou and by the railway extension so connected with Russia after, to firmly carry out the affairs of the East we will, if necessary, to support the use of force. of

Sino-Japanese War, according to the Treaty of Shimonoseki, Liaodong Peninsula (including Luda) was ceded in Japan. Sixth day after the signing of the treaty, Russia will be combined with Germany, France to intervene, forcing the Japanese to give up the Liaodong Peninsula. Since then, Russia will speed up the pace to win Luda. In May 1896, Tsar Nicholas II talks with Li proposed repair a railway extension through the Yellow Sea coast. In January,

1899 control by Tsarist Russia railway companies in the Middle East to the Qing government, so I built South Manchurian Railway "priority" railway companies in the Middle East. Since then, Russia has constantly sent to the Yellow Sea coast to gather intelligence, to prepare for the occupation of the brigade masterpiece. In November,

1897 Germany under the guise of Shandong "Caozhou and lesson plans events", in one fell swoop to send the ship occupied Jiaozhou Bay. This bent Tsarist Russia accounted Luda really a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. November 23, Russia's Foreign Minister memorialized Czar, recommended that the Russian troops occupied immediately Luda. December 15, Tsarist Russia, under the guise of "protection" against German aggression troops occupied the harbor of Port Arthur. To Russia, the Qing court made representations to the Russian retreat, it refused to withdraw its troops. March 3, 1898, Russia will be formally proposed to the Chinese, Luda as a naval base, and threatened that if China does not agree, the Russian Navy should be landing in Luda, at the same time so the loan in accordance with German the Jiaozhou Bay precedent, loan Kabuki repeat of Li and other people with big money. On March 27, the Qing government was forced to sign in Tsarist Russia under pressure Luda rent land treaties. The treaty provides that: ⑴ loan Luda twenty-five years, ⑵ Lvshunkou, designated as the Russian naval base in Dalian Bay and one port designated as a naval port, remainder is commercial port; Extension South Manchurian Railway ⑶ allow the construction of railways of Russia to the Middle East, from Harbin to Dalian. In May of the same year, China and Russia signed Luda Land Lease renewal in of concession four weeks for Russian uniform "unoccupied", China To do anything in the "open space" should be made in Russia "promised". the

Tsarist Russia strong rent Luda realized it in the hunt for an ice-free harbor ambitions of the Pacific coast, and its aggression forces stretched to the south of Northeast China, the whole of Manchuria became its sphere of influence. All this has caused a serious concern of the Japanese imperialists.

edit this section of the railway easy to master the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, the rise in the northeast, they rushed into the building in the Middle East Railway region, driven Eren demolished railway, resulting in railway construction were suspended. In October of the same year, Russia under the slogan of "protection" Middle Eastern Railway troops occupied the railway in the Middle East and along and north-eastern provinces of the provincial capital, and to perish I almost throughout the Northeast.

Russia sent troops to the northeast caused unease of Japanese imperialism. At that time, the Russo-Japanese competition for spheres of influence in China and North Korea, intrigue. Instigated the pro-Russian forces in North Korea, Russia, the exclusion of pro-Japanese, shake the Japanese rule in Korea; in China, according to the Treaty of Shimonoseki, Liaodong Peninsula (including Luda) was ceded to Japan, Russia to take the lead after the interference , forcing one to the mouth of the fat and spit out, he was Tsarist Russia took Japan has been vengeful mind. Tsarist Russia also sent troops to the northeast, and have a tendency to continue to expand outwards, by virtue of their own strength, recapture Czarist Russia in the hands of Luda and the Liaodong Peninsula, excellent opportunity to expand its sphere of influence. March 8

1904 years, Japan is not declaring war, wiped out the Russian fleet at Port Arthur in one fell swoop. A re-divide Northeast China and North Korea's imperialist war broke out on Chinese territory! Results of Russia defeated Japan. In 1905, the Russo-Japanese signed the "Treaty of Portsmouth, Russia acknowledged that North Korea is Japan's sphere of influence, according to the 1860 Sino-Russian Treaty of Beijing from China, deprive the southern part of Sakhalin Island is zoned to Japan; Russo-Japanese sides also to China's sovereignty and territorial transactions, even Russia Luda lease of the South Manchurian Railway (Changchun to Dalian segment), the transfer of ownership to the Japanese. On September 26, the Chinese government has protested that such transfer. However, on December 22 of the same year, the Chinese government under pressure from Japan was forced to sign the "meeting of the Northeast matters is about Rider" recognize the right of Tsarist Russia transferred to Japan. The first paragraph of the treaty, said: "The Chinese government will Russia in accordance with the Russo-Japanese Peace Treaty 5 and item paragraph 6 allow Japan all, takes rows promised". 11 so, he gave the Liaodong Peninsula in Japan Luda into a naval base of aggression against China, and took over the South Manchurian Railway, the establishment of the South Manchurian Railway Company. Since 1915, Japan has repeatedly made to Russia, to the South Manchuria Railway, Changchun and Harbin for sale to Japan, as compensation of weapons to Russia, Japan, but Russia has not been agreed. Signed the Sino-Soviet, the Soviet Union continued to maintain railway interests in the Middle East

railway officials in the Middle East residence of Xidazhi-the former site 8

(a) the beginning of the October Revolution, the Middle East the railway

October Revolution early railway in the Middle East once for Tsarist Russia in the northeast residual forces are entrenched. They used the railway troops, against the nascent Soviet regime. In the foreign armed intervention period, the railway in the Middle East and Britain, France, Japan, the United States and other imperialist interference in the military occupation. At this time, the Soviet government, due to internal and external problems, no time East consultant. In March 1920, the Middle East, the railway workers went on strike, requiring the resignation of Tsarist Russia's railway originally appointed Secretary, very sharp and intense struggle. In this case, in October of this year, the Chinese government ordered to take over the Middle East Railway ordering old Russian Secretary has resigned, announced to sever all ties with the old Russian statement explains: Chinese government temporarily replaced by the Russian government to manage the Middle East railway, until the Chinese government officially recognize the Russian government to agree among themselves until after the road way. 12 This attitude of the Chinese government is opposed by the imperialist powers, but was welcomed by the Soviet government to create the conditions for the future relations between the two countries to negotiate and restored diplomatic relations, the same time, it is also the Chinese side of the Russian Government for the first time to China Declaration of reaction. the the cubic China Declaration of the Soviet government

(b) and Sun Yat-sen Joffe Declaration after the October Revolution, the attitude of the railway in the Middle East

the Soviet Government has issued three declarations to China, announced the abolition of the Russian successive governments entered into treaties with the Chinese government to give up The previous capture all of China's territory, and expressed willingness to friendship with China. 13 According to the three Declaration and other documents, take a look at the attitude of the Soviet government of the railway in the Middle East.

⑴ in the first China Declaration (1919? January 25, 2009), there is no direct reference to the railway problem in the Middle East, just accused of "Japan and the Allies ranging Manchuria Railway returned to the Chinese people it grab has. the second

⑵ China Declaration (September 27, 1920) made it clear that the consent of the Chinese Government to specialized treaties need to be entered into separate Middle Eastern Railway Middle Eastern Railway Council the residential

way "for the Soviet Union.

⑶ the Third China Declaration on the Middle East Railway (September 4, 1922), reiterated the position of the Soviet government, instead of the above this point "on the Russian Government use of the railway issue in the Middle East, China and Russia allows other set Convention. " 16

⑷ 1923 to January 26, 2011, Sun Yat-sen and Joffe issued a joint declaration said: "pleaded guilty to all East Road problems, only in appropriate into the Soviet Union meeting resolution, Dr. Sun Yat-sen that management now in East Road, in fact can only be maintained the status quo; Joffe agree that the existing railway management law, only the Central Government of the Soviet Union without prejudice to the actual interests and rights of the two sides to support the temporary reorganization. 17 In light of the above can be seen, the Soviet government from the outset did not give up the railway in the Middle East, it returned to China mean, but see themselves as the legitimate successor of tsarist Russia's rights and interests in China. the

(c) and the Soviet Union signed the "Outline Agreement", the Soviet Union accounted for of Middle Eastern Railway

Soviet government a three China Declaration caused by the warm response from all walks of life in China, have urged the Northern government to negotiate with the Soviet government, the resumption of diplomatic relations. May 31, 1924, in the Soviet Union through negotiations in Beijing signed the "Sino-Russian solve unsolved Outline Agreement (hereinafter referred to as the" the Outline Agreement "), as well as the Interim Management Middle Eastern Railway Agreement, and the Soviet Union, then resumed diplomatic relations.

under the two agreements, the Soviet Union actually inherited all the rights of tsarist Russia made in 1896 signed the "Sino-Russian Joint East Railway Corporation contract Statutes, the provisions of the Agreement Middle Eastern Railway (Changchun segment north, Changchun Dalian segment remains Japan's share) for the Sino-Soviet joint. Sino-Soviet government statement, the railway in the Middle East "pure lines of a commercial nature," in addition to the road business affairs directly under the jurisdiction of the road, all related to the country and the other sovereign affairs, such as the judiciary, civil affairs, military affairs and police Service, municipal tax, land acres (other than the railway-occupied land), there is handled by the Chinese authorities. 18 the organization and management of the railway, mainly follow the practice of the tsarist era, the chairman of the Chinese people as served as railroad Secretary by the Soviets. The Outline Agreement Article IX (b), said: "The Soviet government promised redemption of the Middle East, the railway and the road belongs to all the property to the Chinese capital, and promised the road all the stocks, bonds ticket shift under Chinese. 19 because and later historical conditions, redeem Road, this one is not realized. after the signing of the

"Outline Agreement, the Soviet Union's interests in the Middle East on the railway has been formally restored, but also established diplomatic relations with China. This time by the the imperialist siege and blockade of the Soviet Union for a victory. But soon after, the Soviet Union was in violation of the Outline Agreement, do things to undermine China's sovereignty. For example, according to the Russo-Japanese Treaty of Portsmouth, Russia ignored China's sovereignty, Luda South Manchurian railway transferred to Japan. Soviet government in January 1925, in Beijing, with Japan signed the Soviet-Japanese Agreement, announced that the Soviet Union to recognize the "Treaty of Portsmouth" remains valid ", 20 and thus in violation of the provisions of Article Outline Agreement: "the Soviet government in accordance with its policies and 1919 with 192 (~ Declaration states of two years, all treaties entered into by the government with a third of the former Russian Empire, agreement items, impede the sovereignty and interests of the Chinese government takes to be invalid." 21

1929 July occurred railway event in the Middle East. later, and the Soviet Union signed the "Khabarovsk Agreement, reiterated the railway still" in the Middle East Outline Agreement "to do, while the railway dispute in the Middle East and other issues, and the other from the two sides will solve. edit

Middle East Railway opened to traffic on July 1, 1903, and opened to traffic. Tsarist Russia has been the annexation of Northeast China as its established policy that began brewing from the 1880s, the construction of a through northeast China Middle Eastern Railway, Vladivostok to their country of Abel Elijah railway eastern section On in June

1896, the Russian government to induce the Qing government with the signing of the Sino-Russian secret about "forced the Qing government promised its aggression requirements. soon China and Russia signed a "jointly organized by Eastern Railway Corporation contracts Constitution" and "East Railway Corporation to renew

1897 began to build railroads.

Middle Eastern Railway, also known as the Eastern Railway Eastern Province Railway west from Manzhouli by Harbin east Suifenhe connected Vladivostok after exit extend the Extension southward to Dalian Bay. Russo-Japanese War, Changchun south segment occupied for Japan, said the South Manchurian Railway October Revolution, Changchun north section of the Central Su jointly nine hundred eighteen

1931 years afterwards for Japan

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