2014年6月16日星期一

Civil aviation

flight activities

Chinese name: the English name of the civil aviation: civil aviation is defined: the use of all types of aircraft serve the national economy. Applied sciences: Aviation Technology (a subject); generic concept (two subjects)

civil aviation, the use of various types of aircraft in all aviation activities in addition to outside the military nature (including national defense, police and customs) known as the Civil Aviation . This definition expressly civil aviation is a part of the aviation and aviation manufacturing industry boundaries defined "use" aircraft, with a "non-military nature" that it different and military aviation. Domestic investment (Trial) "on August 15, 2005 the formal implementation of the civil aviation industry.

civil aviation, is the use of various types of aircraft in all aviation activities in addition to outside the military nature (including national defense, police and customs). This definition expressly civil aviation is a part of the aviation and aviation manufacturing industry boundaries defined "use" aircraft, with a "non-military nature" that it different and military aviation. Domestic investment (Trial) "on August 15, 2005 the formal implementation of the civil aviation industry.

edit this paragraph related summary of the "regulations" means the introduction, In addition to investment in airlines, including state-owned investment entities and non-state-owned investment entities, including domestic capital will also be allowed to intervene in airport operations and aviation fuel supply business, the door of the Chinese civil aviation industry has been completely open to the domestic capital. This indicates that the domestic capital investment in the civil aviation industry and regulatory environment has been basically sound. By the end of December 2009, the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) under the Ministry of Transport decided to salvage Salvage aircraft flight operations into the scope of civil aviation safety management. This marks troubled Rescue and Salvage Bureau of the Ministry of Transport for years qualification of flight operations and safety regulatory issues to be resolved, rescue flight team laid a solid foundation for the further development of the Ministry of Transport.

Edit this paragraph the basic profile since the 1950s, the civil aviation services range continues to expand, become an important sector of the economy of a country. The development of commercial aviation is mainly manifested in the rapid growth of passenger and freight traffic, a regular line of clouds in the continents of the world. A series of advantages due to the fast, safe, comfortable, and not the terrain restrictions, commercial air transportation structure occupies a unique position, which promote the development of domestic and international trade, tourism and a variety of exchanges activities so that development in the short term remote areas possible. General aviation

in engineering, agricultural service aviation the photogrammetry, aviation physical prospecting, seeding, fertilizing, spraying pesticides and air ranger. It has a high quality of work, save time and manpower outstanding advantages. Also has a unique role helicopters for offshore oil exploration services and air lifting operation. The main part of the general aviation in aviation developed countries, government agencies and corporate business flights and commuter flight. This is a regular airline routes can not meet this decentralized, and the occasional need on a regular basis and the rise of the flight. In addition, the general aviation also include the flying personal entertainment, sports performances and competitions flight. The basic requirements of

civil aviation is safe and reliable for commercial aviation passenger and general aviation, commuter, business flights, but also demands punctuality and comfort. Edit this paragraph overview of China's civil aviation

civil aviation

[1] after the cause of the 1970s developed rapidly, by the end of 1983, the civil aviation aircraft

a total of 203 domestic and international routes, route total mileage of more than 370 thousand kilometers, including international routes 23, leading to 23 cities in 19 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, Oceania.

domestic routes has been in Beijing and the provinces (excluding Taiwan Province), provincial capitals and major cities linked, and can be reached that day.

China's civil aviation enterprises operating aerial photography, aerial prospecting, maritime services, agriculture sowing and a series of industrial and agricultural production services business (called professional aviation). the after

1980 some local governments and other departments also began operating general aviation operations, such as offshore oil services and regional tourism.

since the reform and opening up, China's civil aviation sustained, rapid and healthy development, scale, quality and efficiency has leapt to a new level.

- human resources. The entire industry employs about 35 million people, including 12,840 flight personnel, airworthiness maintenance staff of 16,100, the 3600 controller.

- airlines. As of the end of 2011, China's total transport airlines 47 division of the state-owned holding company of 38 different classes, private and private holding company 9; 11 all-cargo airlines; 16 Sino-foreign joint venture airlines; five listed companies. As of the end of 2011, the general aviation general aviation license 123, North China 33 23, China and South Africa, 22 in East China, Northeast China 15, Southwest 13 11, Northwest Territories, Xinjiang region 6.

- aircraft. Industry-wide 982 transport aircraft, including 937 passenger aircraft and 45 freighters. As of the end of 2011, the general aviation enterprises end of 1124 the total number of aircraft in the book, including the teaching and training of 303 aircraft.

- Airport. As of the end of 2011, the civil aviation industry-wide transport aircraft ending in the number of brochure racks 1764 over the previous year, an increase of 167. 34 113 (25) Airport to accommodate Boeing 747 models accommodate Boeing 737 and above models Airport to accommodate Boeing 737 following models. years

2005 Civil Aviation Air Transport Airport passenger throughput reached more than 10 million passengers, Airport 26 7 ,500-10 million people in the 9 ,100-500 million people. Beijing, Shanghai/Pudong and Guangzhou airport passenger throughput of 14, 44 and 45 in the world rankings.

- investment in fixed assets. "15" during the civil aviation industry-wide investment in fixed assets amounted to 820 billion yuan, 22.3 billion yuan of central government funds. Fixed assets investment, the construction of the airport to 70.7 billion yuan, ATC building 70 billion, 1.3 billion yuan construction of safety facilities, science and information 30 billion. "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" period, the intensity of civil aviation fixed assets investment will further increase the expected total investment of 163 billion yuan, including airport construction 140 billion yuan, the ATC building of 11 billion yuan, construction of 50 billion security facilities, scientific and educational information 70 billion. transportation scale

-. Total domestic, international and regional routes in the National Civil Aviation 1257, of 1024 domestic routes (including Hong Kong and Macau routes 43), and 233 international routes. Daily flight 4023 class, the 3602 class domestic flights, international flights 421 classes. Domestic, regional and international routes total mileage of up to 2 million kilometers. Higher than the world average growth rate of China's civil aviation Civil Aviation average more than twice the total traffic volume of qualifying ICAO Contracting States by 9, 2000 to 2005 2.

- colleges and research institutes. As of the end of 2011, China's total certification of airports 180, five more than last year. The two research institutes, 11 scientific research base. In 2011, the Civil Aviation under the institutions in the number of students reached 52,383 people, including: 1601, graduate students of the college of 42,974 people, adult admissions 5874, 1934 secondary school students.

Edit this paragraph related to the definition of definition: the use of various types of aircraft in all aviation activities in addition to outside the military nature (including national defense, police and customs) is called civil aviation. clear civil aviation the graphical symbols

public information

This definition is part of the aviation, defines "use" aircraft and aviation manufacturing industry boundaries, "non-military nature" that it different and military aviation.

edit the segment classification is divided into two parts. Commercial aviation and general aviation

commercial aviation

also known as air transport. Refers to aviation activities of aircraft operating passenger and freight transport. Business that this is a business for profit. It is also the transport activities, this aviation activities are an integral department of transportation, railways, highways, waterways and pipeline transportation together constitute the use of transport system of the country. Although air transport traffic and other modes of transport than is small, but because of the rapid, long-distance transport capacity and high efficiency air transport on the output value ranking rising, but the tide of economic globalization play irreplaceable, an increasingly larger role on the international exchanges.

commercial aircraft (16)

General Aviation

, air transport as a part of the civil aviation divided out after the rest of the civil aviation collectively known as general aviation, thus include a number of general aviation, a very wide range, can be roughly divided into the following categories:

(l) industrial aviation: aircraft industry and mining related activities including the use of aerial photography, aerial remote sensing, geophysical exploration, aviation lifting oil aviation, aviation and environmental monitoring specific application. Use of the advantages of the aviation in these areas, you can accomplish many previously unavailable works, such as offshore oil and aviation convenient transportation and logistics services, it is difficult to imagine that such an industry. Others such as aerial prospecting, aerial photography, the progress of the work several times to a hundred times faster.

(2) agricultural aviation: aviation services, including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery industry activities. Such as forest fire prevention, fire fighting, sow pesticides, are unmatched by other means. aeronautical research and exploration activities in

(3): including the validation of new technologies, the test flight of the new aircraft, and aircraft meteorological, astronomical observations and adventure activities.

(4) flight training: In addition to training Air Force pilots train all types of flight schools and flight activities of the club. aviation sport of

(5): various types of aircraft to carry out sports activities, such as skydiving, glider, hot air balloons and model aviation sports.

(6) Business Aviation: senior executives of large enterprises and government units owned aircraft for official activities. More and more multinational companies and the emergence and expansion of business scale, enterprise owned business aircraft, business aviation to become an independent in the general aviation sector.

(7) Private Aviation: privately owned aircraft aviation activities.

general aviation in China mainly refers to the previous category 5, the latter two began to develop in our country, but in some air power, accounted for the vast majority of general aviation aircraft used by the civil aviation and private aviation. Composed

civil aviation by the following major components: government departments and civil aviation enterprises, civil aviation airport

general aviation aircraft (20)

government sector

the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) referred to the Civil Aviation Authority, or CAAC, the head of the State Council of the People's Republic of China civil aviation industry the management of the National Bureau of ministries, owned by the management of the Ministry of Transport. Its predecessor, the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (CAAC), in March 2008 to the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). Affairs related to national sovereignty and exchanges, requiring rapid coordination and unified scheduling, thus almost all countries have set up an independent government agency to manage the civil aviation matters, China is responsible for the management of the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (CAAC). Management of government departments:

(l) the development of the civil aviation regulations, ordinances, and oversee the implementation of these regulations, ordinances.

(2) planning, approval and management of aviation enterprises.

(3) route planning and management, and day-to-day air traffic management, to ensure flight security, effective, quick to implement.

(4) the manufacture of civil aircraft and related technology and equipment, the development of technical standards for review, certification, supervision and safety, flight of civil aircraft accident investigation and handling.

(5) on behalf of the national management of international civil aviation contacts, negotiations, participation in international organizations and activities within, to safeguard the country's interests.

(6) of the Civil Aviation Airport unified planning and business management.

(7) of the Civil Aviation various types of professionals to develop work standards, licensing, and conducting appraisals, training civil aviation staff.

civil aviation enterprises

engaged in all kinds of enterprises and the civil aviation industry, the most important air transport enterprises, that is, we often say that the airline, they master the aircraft engaged in the production and transport, is the main source of income of the civil aviation industry production. Other types of aviation companies such as fuel, aircraft materials, sales are around transportation enterprise activities. The airline business is divided into two main parts: First, the maintenance and management of the use of the aircraft (flight), another part of the company's business and sales.

Civil Aviation Airport

of Airport is a combination of civil aviation and society as a whole, the airport is a regional public service facilities. Airport with both profitable enterprise nature but also with the regional public service nature of the business, and thus most airports in the world, is a semi-corporate nature of the institutions under the jurisdiction of the local government, mainly for air transport services of the airport called Airport or referred to airports, use the airport's general large transport aircraft, airports have passenger service areas (Terminal), and the corresponding facilities.

civil aviation is a large and complex system, which the cause of government agencies, corporate nature of the airline, as well as semi-corporate nature of airports, coordination of various parts of the run to ensure the rapid advance of the civil aviation industry.

edit the relevant provisions of this paragraph, the Civil Aviation and knowledge given seat tickets

travelers only been reserved to with the fixed properly seat airliner opportunity. Travelers in accordance with the relevant provisions of the airline ticket offices or their agents the ticket office to reserve a seat. Seat passengers have booked tickets should be ticketing time limit stipulated by the airline concerned. If no ticket in the ticket within the time limit, set the seat is canceled. Chinese passenger ticket, to show his identity card or other valid identity documents, and fill in the passenger seat single "; foreign visitors, overseas Chinese, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan compatriots tickets, must present a valid passport, HVPs issued by the, MTPs, residence permit, travel permit, or the public security organs other valid identity documents and fill out the "fixed-seat, single travelers. The full two years of age, children under the age of 12 years old pay 50% of the adult fare. Infants under two years of age pay 10% of the adult fare, not occupy a seat, each adult passenger can only have a baby to enjoy this fare.

special status

in disabled veterans, the foreign guests organizations overseas Chinese, compatriots in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao compatriots take Chinese civilian airliner purchase discount fare ticket should the formalities ① the Invalides ride China Civil Aviation Flight buy discount fare tickets shall carry out the following procedures: I . Disabled veterans ride the civilian airliner in the net purchase discount fare tickets, in addition to the the ticketing unit or the reception unit is subject to a letter of introduction and resident identity card or temporary ID card must also present a "revolution Invalides certificate", disabled veterans enjoy The first fare discount of 20% of the preferential treatment. Ⅱ. Lost "revolution Invalides certificate" and under a post in the Invalides, the coin where the units issued by the missing letter and other relevant formalities buy preferential treatment analysis buckle fare tickets. The ② the foreign guests organizations in overseas Chinese compatriots in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao compatriots purchase discount fare ticket should apply for the following procedures: I. The foreign guests groups overseas Chinese, compatriots in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao compatriots purchase discount fare ticket, must hold a reception unit to buy discount tickets issued separate certificates and other valid travel documents. Ⅱ. Purchasing where the host organization must provide the travel documents of the overseas Chinese and compatriots in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao compatriots. If for some reason does not provide overseas Chinese, compatriots in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao compatriots, travel documents, present their reception units issued proof of purchase buckle votes.

Ⅲ. Purchase tickets must fill travelers to buy a fixed seat single. seat

again confirmed The travelers of

hold been reserved onward or round-trip passenger tickets and stay for 72 hours or more in the onward or return location, shall before the onward or return flights the aircraft from the station two days before 12:00 apply for the seat again confirmed the formalities. Otherwise, originally scheduled seats will not be reserved.

the ticket validity

domestic transportation ticket valid for one year. Regular ticket since the date of the travelers began to travel the occasional ticket since the date of issuing the ticket of midnight the next day. the the

change tickets procedures

Passengers, if they wish to change the flight date, the class must be made 48 hours prior to the flight originally designated the aircraft away from the station. The ticket can only be changed once.

ticket can only change once again change, subject to refund after the relevant regulations, re-ticketing. Passenger transportation by airline flight cancellations in advance, delay the the voyage changed or not originally scheduled seat, the airline should, as far as possible, prioritize passengers subsequent flights, or signed to other airlines' flights; such due to the above reasons, the travelers need to change the class of the fare difference between Duotuishaobu.

ticket lost

travelers lost ticket, shall be in writing to the carrier or its agent report the loss, and the need to provide sufficient proof. The carrier will be the airline provides a refund after a certain period of time. Report the loss before the ticket as has been misused or take back, the carrier is irresponsible. Refund

the airliners

① FIT travelers set out on the ticket 24 hours before departure time to apply for a refund, the refund fee of 5% of the original fare to pay; away from the station time within 24 hours of required in-flight aircraft, two hours containing the previous request for refund required to pay 10% of the original fare refund fees; apply for a refund in less than two hours before the flight aircraft from station to pay the original ticketed 20% refund fee; request for a refund after the flight departure time, missed the flight, refund processing required to pay the original ticketed show fee of 50%. (Cut-off flight regulations before leaving at 30 minutes or 45 minutes to stop for check only.) Kiskiskis

② The group travelers tickets voluntary refund in accordance with the following provisions charged refund fees:

Ⅰ groups passenger flights provisions from the station time 72 hours ago require a refund required to pay 10% of the original fare refund.

Ⅱ group travelers required during the flight to the provisions of 72 hours before the departure time of 12:00 the day before the request for refund, refund fees to pay 30% of the original ticketed departure time.

Ⅲ group travelers required during the flight from the request for refund before the flight departure the day before the stop time after 12:00 to refund fees to pay 50% of the original fare.

Ⅳ held connecting groups, round-trip ticket request for refund handled by this section, the provisions of the previous three. group travelers

Ⅴ missed the plane ticket void ticketed subside. the

(Note: the actual provisions of the various airlines prevail, please pay attention) a refund

discount tickets if travelers provisional decision to cancel the originally scheduled flight, shall go and obtain refunds at the original purchase. original ticketed

Ⅰ aircraft departure time 24 hours ago apply for refund from the need to pay 5% of the refund fee;

Ⅱ due to travelers reasons flight aircraft provisions from the station time of 24 hours, 2 hours (including) the previous requirements of a refund, to be paid original ticketed the 10% refund fee;

Ⅲ in less than 2 hours before the flight the aircraft away from the station apply for a refund, the need to pay the original ticketed 20% of the refund fee;

Ⅳ flights from station time requirements of a refund, missed the flight refund processing, to be paid the original ticketed show fee of 50%;

Ⅴ due to the civil aviation, such as aircraft failure, bad weather caused flight cancellations, travelers should be looking for airport check-in and other relevant departments should seek refunds or ask them to sign the ticket, stamped and explain the situation, go to the designated place to apply for a full refund.

(Note: Please subject to the actual provisions of the various airlines, please note)

mistakenly machine

the wrong machine travelers boarding procedures completed according to the specified time, or does not comply with the provisions of their travel documents and failed to seize the opportunity.

the event missed the flight, passengers no later than the day after the flight departure 12:00 (inclusive) to take advantage of the airport to confirm. Since then asked to switch to later flights, airlines in flight have to be handled under the conditions of available seats, the show fee waived once.

travelers mistakenly machine such as the request for a refund, since missed the flight to the destination of 50% of the original ticketed show fee to pay.

free baggage allowance

the baggage free of charge from $ travelers actual fare paid by the class of the decision, including the free amount of checked baggage and checked baggage allowance.

passengers holding adult tickets or children's tickets per person baggage limit of 40 kg: first class, business class 30 kg, 20 kg in economy class. Passengers holding tickets for children without the free baggage allowance.

carry-on items (checked baggage)

value of compensation; travelers have lost baggage declared value, declared value compensation.

not allowed as items of luggage transportation

travelers may not entrained in checked baggage or carry-on belongings flammable, explosion, corrosive, toxic, radioactive materials, polymeric substances, alkaline substances and other dangerous substances. Passenger aircraft allowed to carry weapons, weapon and weapon.

items are not allowed in checked baggage within entrained

Visitors are not allowed in the baggage entrainment of confidential documents, information, foreign credit, securities, currency, bills of exchange, cargo heavy items, fragile, perishable goods, as well as other applications that require hand care items. Entrained for passenger transportation of checked baggage within the above items lost or damaged shall not be liable. travelers

traveling documents

the presentation of a valid identity document ticketing and took the opportunity. Valid identity document types including: Chinese visitors, identity card, Jing Guanzheng, military officer; residents of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan compatriots travel documents; foreign traveler's passport, travel documents or diplomats card; China's General Administration of Civil Aviation other valid identity document recognized.

minors under the age of 16 Chinese visitors, student ID, tickets and took the opportunity of the booklet or their places of residence issued by the public security organs of identity documents; disabled revolutionary servicemen certificate due to public disabling active duty with tickets because of disability of the People's Police with the "people's police disability pension certificates for tickets. passenger ticket

the health

suffering the disease, issued by the applicable took the opportunity to prove the medical units must hold. the voluntary insurance

travelers travelers can decide to insurance companies in the domestic air transport passengers personal accident insurance. The payment of this insurance does not waive or reduce the compensation limit for passenger transportation shall be liable for.

edit this paragraph investment in civil aviation regulatory environment for domestic investment in civil aviation industry (Trial) "on August 15, 2005 the formal implementation. The provisions introduced means that, in addition to the investment in airlines, including state-owned investment entities and non-state-owned investment entities, including domestic capital will also be allowed to intervene in airport operations and aviation fuel supply business, the Chinese civil aviation industry The door has been completely open to the domestic capital. This indicates that the domestic capital investment in the civil aviation industry and regulatory environment has been basically sound.

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