2014年5月29日星期四

Physical examination

examination is an abbreviation of the physical examination, physical examination by medical means and methods of subjects.

physical examination is the diagnostic aspects of the medical examination for symptoms or diseases and related factors means. Physical examination

symptoms and complained of physical examination for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment, known as "medical physical examination. handled

entry examination, admission, army, driver's license, go abroad, get married, insurance and other formalities of examination based on the physical examination of a particular work or behavior, called by physical examination.

In order to understand the health status of the subjects, the early detection of disease clues and health hazards for the disease, the physical examination of early disease or health to disease or health groups, called health check [1]. Program the examination

healthy general is completed in the premise of the fasting blood tests (including blood count, blood chemistry, blood, immune and tumor markers, hormones, trace elements and other items), and abdominal ultrasonography. There without fasting inside and outside, ophthalmology, ENT, oral, gynecological and TCM clinical subjects examination, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, bone density after transcranial Doppler auxiliary seized Branch checks, of course, according to the specific The re-election to do other projects. opportunity

Edit this paragraph the physical examination of the initial time and cycle with increasing age, human suffering from certain diseases are also increasing. These diseases are mostly early noticeable symptoms, but often with serious consequences. Unfortunately, in early detection and timely treatment, the prognosis is often good. To this end the Mayo Medical Center experts to provide you with a regular health check list. It involved a total of nine projects. This list will tell you when what we should do.

⒈ * dental check-up from the one-year-old, at least a year to do a dental check.

⒉ * vision screening from the age of three, the first visual acuity. Later as the case may be inspected once every 3-5 years.

⒊ * blood pressure checked when your 10-year-old should be done first blood pressure check, after at least every two years. the

⒋ * cervical smear test if you are a woman in your 18-year-old (or having sex later) when first cervical smears. Check again the next 1-3 years. After three consecutive negative results, check the gap can be extended.

⒌ * cholesterol checked when your 20-year-old, first blood cholesterol checked after every five years.

⒍ * breast examination if you are a woman in your 40-year-old, first by a doctor, breast exams. the

⒎ * Prostate check if you are male, you are 50 years of age when the first prostate exam. Note that some doctors want you to do at the age of 40. 8. * Mammogram If you are a woman in your 50-year-old when the first mammography. Note that some doctors want you to do at the age of 40.

⒐ * proctoscopy your 50-year-old when you start to do the first proctoscopy to do once the next 3-5 years.

(experts recommend): Asian colorectal low incidence, high incidence of gastric cancer, so this should be changed to do endoscopy is appropriate. The visual inspection

Edit this paragraph the correct interval and test items to go to the hospital for health checks should be long intervals, check what items? This varies from person to person and treat them differently, should proceed from reality, to make a choice based on their age, gender, occupation, health status and family history, full consideration.

young adults in good health: check once every 1 to 2 years, check the focus of the project is the heart, lung, liver, gall bladder, stomach and other vital organs, and blood pressure. Poor physical especially in people with a genetic predisposition to the disease, a family history of hypertension, coronary heart disease diabetes, mental illness and tumor, at least annually.

in elderly: the body into the troubled, significant increase in the prevalence of various diseases, therefore, check the interval should be shortened to about half a year. Especially into the 60-year-old elderly, the interval should be about 3 to 4 months, check the project by a physician discretion, but should always be conventional check blood pressure, ECG, X-ray chest and hematuria. As the incidence of diabetes increased significantly in recent years, especially in the elderly obese or have high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, a history of check urine sugar and blood sugar. If conditional, the best every time chaired by the regular doctor checks for comprehensive, systematic grasp of the health status of the subjects and health guidance on subjects. Participate in the examination, they should prepare a healthy manual (or prepared by the hospital), should always fill out. In addition to the checks, the elderly examination

married women should also regularly (once a year) check the uterus and mammary gland? Enable the early detection of cervical cancer and breast cancer women multiple. Engaged in close contact with the toxic and hazardous substances trades workers, should also periodically special inspection, so that early detection of occupational diseases.

children: (1) growth and development of detection. Including weighing, measuring height, measured head circumference, born within six months of the child in once a month; 6 months to 1 year old child once every two months check; every three-year-old to 2-year-old child monthly check once; 2-3 years old children check once every six months; children over 3 years old check once a year. (2) blood tests. Including checks of blood, trace elements, blood lead. (3) ENT examination. Early examination of the innate language developmental disorders, hearing impairment, strabismus and other diseases, early detection and early treatment. ④ the sexual organs checks. ⑤ orthopedic examination.

everyone can pay attention to this issue, and can consciously take the initiative to go to the hospital regularly for health checks, you can believe that healthy people to go to the hospital "will soon become a common practice to become a fashion, which will significantly improve the variety of serious diseases Early diagnosis and cure rates.

edit this paragraph examination Note, ECG: before the inspection should be quiet and rest for about 5 minutes, not in the running, meal, cold drinks or smoking after checking these factors can result in abnormal electrocardiogram, thus affecting the judgment of disease. For a meal before the test and the double two ladder exercise test check should be to check the date of fasting.

Second, EEG: one day before checking to wash your hair, and you can not use hair oil. 24 hours before you want to stop taking sedatives, stimulants and other drugs act on the nervous system, in order to avoid the check when the formation of a false impression to influence the judgment of the inspection results. The EEG examination must be carried out within three hours after a meal, such as checking and can not eat, they have to follow the doctor's arrangements, 50% of the oral administration of 50 grams of powdered sugar or intravenous glucose 40 ml, affect the inspection to prevent low blood sugar results.

three thyroid iodine test: check must be fasting before the examination can not take iodine preparations or eat iodine-rich foods, such as kelp, jellyfish, seaweed.

Fourth, the renogram check: check before we must emptying urine not drink tea and coffee, not taking diuretics.

V. fiber endoscopy: bronchial fiberscope check for four hours before fasting, water deprivation, avoid checking stimulation causes vomiting. Wearing dentures must be removed before the check off and strayed into the trachea or esophagus dentures prevent the inspection process. The gastroscopy before 6 to 8 hours fasting, to prevent vomiting and intubation affect the inspection findings, even emptying the toilet before the examination. Three days before the colonoscopy should eat a low residue diet, one day before check physic, three hours before the check enema to emptying stool in the intestine. six

, CT examination: abdominal CT examination must be fasting, water deprivation, in order to avoid the formation of artifacts, affecting the quality of CT images. CT examination of the other parts you do not need to water fasting. The blood pressure the check

seven selective angiocardiography fasting: 3 to 4 hours before the test. Practice seriously need to do doctors teach inspection actions, such as breathing, breath, and to cooperate with the inspection.

eight cholangiography: do oral contrast agent checks, one day before the test, at noon to eat fat meal, the bile in the gallbladder emptying, and dinner to the oil-free high-sugar foods as well. After dinner around 7:00 according to the doctor confessed to taking the contrast agent, and fasting. Do venography same fat meal eaten at noon on the day before the test, check the date of the morning fasting. If acute inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, acute jaundice, to be improved before making this check.

nine, the urinary tract and the male reproductive system imaging: check one day before the dinner should eat soft food, and thereafter will fast. Check one day before the evening also served laxatives to clear the gas accumulation in the intestine, plot dung. Check before emptying urine.

10, female reproductive system angiography: check before emptying urine, the unsolved stool enema, but also shave pubic hair, wash your vagina.

eleven, laboratory examination: blood for biochemical examination, fasting blood drawn in the morning before breakfast, the detected result is more accurate. Check liver function, blood sugar, blood lipids, especially for fasting requirements more stringent.

XII examination before 22:00 on the day before the rest of fasting (including water), fasting 8:00 - 10:00 to the examination center.

the nine examination Note:

an examination please make an appointment arrangements; physical examination the day before to avoid alcohol, limit high-fat high-protein diet, avoid the use of drugs affecting liver and kidney function. the

, check the first three - 5 diet should be light, the Wu Shi liver, pig's blood, etc. with bloody of food, check 12:00 the evening of the previous day or 05:00 after completely fasting (including drinking water).

Third, the blood and liver, gall bladder B-be fasting; doing bladder, prostate, uterus, Annex B timeout Do urination; absence of urine, the need of drinking water to bladder filling.

do X-ray examination, Yichuan cotton underwear, do not wear clothes, bras with metal buttons; pluck necklace, cell phone, pens, keys and other metal objects. Pregnant and female subjects may be pregnant, please inform the service personnel of the health check, be careful to do X-rays.

, Ms. physiological period, are not suitable for gynecological examination and urinalysis; gynecological examination before emptying the bladder; the breast far infrared ray review the best choice in the week after the menstrual period. The unmarried Ms. should not do a gynecological examination with special needs to sign the relevant agreement (this book) in order to make the appropriate checks

six internal medicine physical examination before measuring blood pressure, height, weight.

be blood extraction, abdominal ultrasound done to check before eating. Examination

VIII examination the day Dress: convenient to wear off clothing, shoes and socks, it is best not to wear the necklace lesbian bra should not strip prop, do not wear underwear of metal sequins.

9, medical thermal imaging project, to be emptied before they seized urine should fasting, water.

healthy and disease check the difference between

health examination in health to take the initiative to go to the hospital or specialized medical center to check the entire body, the main purpose is to by checking whether there is potential disease, in order to take timely measures to prevent and treat . Thinks healthy middle-aged healthy situation is very optimistic about the extent of more than 50% of the middle-aged man suffering from various diseases, high blood sugar, high blood fat, high cholesterol, high blood pressure accounted for the vast majority. healthy and disease in

checks are two different things

a lot of people did not attract enough attention to the physical examination, his body properly there is no need to do the check, this is a misunderstanding, physical examination and disease inspection is not the same thing. The health check can only say is a beginning of the seizure, the disease can be found. For example, urine can discover kidneys serious illness, hypertension, hepatitis B, as well as the obvious lung disease can be found through the measurement of blood pressure, blood tests and chest X-ray. But for some of the more complex disease, routine health examination is powerless. For example, one of the common symptoms of advanced cancer is anemia, routine physical examination by checking the hemoglobin is able to detect anemia and some cancers and anemia symptoms, routine examination not check out. He warned, do not only pay attention to the examination results are not normal, while ignoring the views of doctors medical report signed. The conclusions of the medical report is derived from examining physicians through a comprehensive analysis of the subjects of examination results, suggest you review a single, you must immediately review confirmed. seek medical advice

optional medical projects

by family history, age, hobbies impact people's physical condition is not the same, not specially selected items are checked in the routine examination in order to save money, so check it out The result is not reflect the situation of the entire body. The Beijing public medical center experts pointed out that the examinees do not need to check the project self-assertion, it is best to seek the doctor's opinion. The correct approach is to develop personalized medical examination by a doctor by profession. Subjects in the examination before the personal details explained to the doctor, the doctor conducted a comprehensive analysis of the physical condition of the subject "tailored" to make consistent with the subjects of medical items and relatively affordable personalized of the program. The examination of

save the medical report

subjects should not be limited to the conclusions of the "normal" or "abnormal". Each data in the medical report is the breakdown of the entire physical condition. Doctors to determine some diseases tend to refer to the last year of medical data, by contrast, in order to determine whether there is a potential disease. The medical report should be saved every year. If you are suffering from a disease, previous medical report to the doctor, the doctor will soon develop a treatment plan.

projects need to regularly check what?

many people are feeling a certain part does not apply only to the hospital to check, and do not plan to do the physical examination. Public medical center experts point out that, for healthy people, some project or organ of the periodic inspection must be different according to age and gender.

at least a year to conduct a blood pressure check; first cholesterol check the age of 20, after once every five years; 50 years old I made the first prostate exam, some doctors recommend 40 years of age; 50 years of age, to do the first time The proctoscope check done once every 3-5 years thereafter. The women of

should be added to the examination of the breast and other organs. Women in general to the age of 40, to find a doctor for a mammogram; 50 years old when we need to do mammography, or 40-year-old started to do. Cervical smear checks, the first inspection requirements in the 18-year-old (or having sex later). Check again the next 1-3 years. After three consecutive negative results, check the gap may be appropriately extended.

nine symptoms remind examination

a: back pain

to this may be cystitis or inflammation attachments. Should be to the hospital for blood tests, urine tests, if required to do cystoscopy. This time to drink plenty of water, avoid spicy foods containing spices. To the anti-inflammatory and physical therapy, with pumpkin oil or sandalwood oil bath effect will be good.

: often dizziness

blood pressure should be checked. People of any age are likely to suffer from low blood pressure, women are usually in the 35-40 years of age. To adjust your diet, choose some good sports, such as swimming.

: morning eyes slightly swollen

This is most likely the result of long-term fatigue. If the edema often, and then to check the kidney.

: irritability

little trivia on crying, if it does not match your personality, you need to check the thyroid gland, the central nervous system is the most sensitive to thyroid hormone imbalance. The early symptoms are easily excited, grumpy, crying, insomnia, appetite is good, but losing weight, women may exhibit menstrual disorders.

: night leg swelling

symptoms of chronic venous failure. Need to eat more raw vegetables, they contain fiber reinforcement vein wall.

six: hands and feet often cramp

may be calcium and vitamin D, to eat more dairy products, liver, seafood.

seven: a large number of of hair loss

women than men, more likely to suffer from dispersion of hair loss (shedding) hair everywhere from the head. Hair shedding a large reason may be due to psychological pressure, not cure infection or an incorrect diet, may also be caused by certain diseases or congenital diseases.

eight: than usual sweating

the the vascular autonomic dislocation. If ordinary sedative does not work, you must go to the doctor. the

Nine: weight change, often thirsty

the bit like diabetes these symptoms, it is necessary to do blood glucose testing. If the test results are fairly normal, do not eat sweets and fatty foods.

Edit this paragraph how to neonatal medical examination at the moment just to see the newborn, the mother picked up the baby and the baby close to the body to cuddle. The father should have the opportunity to share this moment. Comprehensive physical examination should be carried out within 12 hours after birth, including through physical and neuromuscular examination to more accurately determine the gestational age.

measure the length measurement from head to heel, head circumference (the largest measured value in the ear) should be about half the length plus 10cm. Figure 260-1 shows the relationship between birth weight and gestational age classification. Full-term children, the average weight is 3. 2kg. Measured the size of the newborn with gestational age contrast, some cases may provide important clues. For example, if the baby is small for gestational age, may be caused due to intrauterine infection or chromosomal abnormalities. And if the baby is large for gestational age, probably because the mother suffering from diabetes or hyperinsulinemia syndrome, such as the Beck-with, because of the great arteries cause of cyanotic congenital heart disease, the quality of maternal obesity or family as Crow and Cheyenne Indians. normal case of

cardiopulmonary system, respiratory abdominal breathing, respiratory rate 40 to 50 beats/min, coarse breath sounds, but the same tone of the entire chest auscultation. Heart sounds with a stethoscope can be heard most clearly the bottom of the sternum. Heart rate of 100 to 150 beats/min (average 120), may have significant sinus arrhythmia. You can often hear a heart murmur, but only about 10% with congenital heart disease. Serious neonatal congenital heart disease, such as aortic atresia, right or left ventricular hypoplasia showed pale or heart failure.

palpable femoral pulse check on both sides at the same time, compare them to the pulsating intensity. Femoral pulse is weak, there may be aortic atresia or left ventricular abnormalities. Femoral pulse weak Doppler the sphygmomanometer (as DOPTONE device) measured in all limbs to be determined. Doppler sphygmomanometer is used mounted on the inflated cuff of the ultrasonic sensor, the probe gassing vessels in the inrush current, thereby accurately measuring the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In addition, turn red test may also be used for measuring blood pressure. Raise the limb until the skin becomes pale, blood drained, then inflatable blood pressure cuff tied up in advance as conventional blood pressure measurement, the limb is placed to the side of the sick child, gradually reduce the pressure of the cuff, when the limb color turn write down the reading in the red (This represents the systolic blood pressure).

musculoskeletal system, limbs should be symmetry can own activities. Neonatal supine flexion of the hip and knee, thigh completely outreach to the plane of the exam table. Outreach is limited, and when the femoral head sliding into the acetabulum can touch and sound bombs, the main signs of congenital dislocation of the hip. Infanticide and breech births especially prone to hip dislocation. Hip activity limitation as ultrasonography and orthopedics expert consultation. Minimal congenital hip dysplasia, available two or three diapers pocket, this method is applicable. more serious cases of

ultrasonic observation of checks by the orthopedic surgeon to apply treatment of outreach splint. Not immediately orthopedic specialist treatment, available 24 hours a day application three pocket diapers since has been so far to be able to use the splint. If any shape diapers, the first piece of diapers should be close to the skin package tight, and the other two as the outer layer, with a larger volume. If you have the clubfoot or any other obvious need orthopedic deformities exist, should immediately begin treatment.

nervous system should lead Moro reflex, sucking reflex and rooting reflex. Under normal circumstances, deep tendon reflexes exists bilateral symmetry.

skin skin is usually red, but often in the first few hours after birth hand, foot and cyanosis. A few days after the occurrence of dry, molting, especially the ankles and wrists folds. Childbirth by birth canal squeeze, the first expulsion of the baby in the head and face can be seen petechiae, but if found in parts of the skin below the umbilical, said there is an exception. After 24 weeks of pregnancy, the newborn surface is mostly covered with fat tires, and gradually disappears after 40 weeks of pregnancy.

head of the production of the first bit of head deformable craniosynostosis overlap and scalp edema and/or ecchymosis (tumor production). Breech births, the head usually does not distort, edema, ecchymosis appeared earlier exposed parts (such as the buttocks, genitals, or feet). Fontanelle change in diameter to a few centimeters from the fingertips. The cephalhematoma is no more than an accumulation of blood between the bone and the periosteum a swelling of the bone joints. Can occur on one side or both sides of the parietal bone, and occasionally in the occipital bone. Cephalhematoma usually the first few hours after birth, edema disappeared obvious, gradually disappear after a few months, without suction.

may occur due to intrauterine fetal position affect facial asymmetry. But when the baby cries, the nasolabial fold, asymmetry, and eye wrinkles and facial nerve paralysis should be suspected.

eyes open two deal with said pupil, reaction to light, the fundus clearly visible. The direct ophthalmoscope check red reflex, vitreous opacities can be excluded. The sclera bleeding is common.

ear examination can determine the gestational age, it would need to check the position of the ears; ear bit low often signs of kidney or hereditary diseases. The ear canal should be open and visible eardrum. Cheap portable audiometry test newborn hearing, its reliability and validity has yet to be confirmed, but in the overall screening. Brainstem auditory evoked response test can be applied to high-risk patients should be asked in detail about the presence or absence of family history of deafness, the fetal period rubella, neonatal jaundice or mother or newborn ever accept aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment.

oral should complete check on the palate and uvula without gingival cysts and congenital lingual frenulum is too short (ankyloglossia). Small bead-like bulge in the hard palate (Epstein Summary) and small ulcers (Bednar mouth sores) are normal. Also need to check the baby's sucking ability.

abdomen 10% of newborns with abdominal deformity, careful observation of the students during the first few days, including the kidney and other organ shape, size or location of the abnormal. Normal circumstances, the liver subcostal 1 ~ 2cm palpable spleen tip easily touched. General both kidneys can be touched, the left is more easily accessible than the right kidneys can not be touched, there might be a kidney missing or hypoplasia. The huge kidney may be caused by the obstruction, tumors or cystic lesions. The baby boy is not urinating prompted posterior urethral valve there. Weak the periumbilical muscle system, the umbilical hernia is very common, but rarely cause symptoms or need treatment.

genital full-term baby boy's testicles in the scrotum, neonatal often occurs hydrocele and inguinal hernia. A hard discoloration of the scrotal mass may be testicular torsion, especially breech births. Although testicular torsion is rare and in the neonatal period pain is not obvious, but it is a surgical emergency. Such as reversing the present, can be identified by scarring of hardness distribution and testicular testicular torsion or simple contusion. If the hydrocele, the mass is opaque. Baby girl labia prominent, there may be temporary and non-irritating mucus, and occasionally was bloody secretions (false menstruation), however, if any blood clots should be checked. Labia lace seen after a small mass, the mother due to hormonal stimulation, disappeared after a few weeks.

weight of most newborns, born during the first few days of body weight loss of 5% to 7% is normal and common. Meconium (a viscous dark green stuff, containing the lanugo and squamous epithelium from swallowing the amniotic fluid, and intestinal secretions) discharge, the fetal fat loss and drying of the umbilical cord can cause some weight loss, but mostly caused due to urination and not dominant water loss.

umbilical cord plastic umbilical cord clip should be removed in 24 hours so as not to cause excessive tension umbilical cord stump dry. Every day with 70% alcohol rubbed the stump, to facilitate drying, to reduce infection. Umbilical infections invade the best way, the first part of the bacterial colonization, and should therefore be observed daily umbilical redness or whether exudation. Umbilical is often the site of the selected bacterial culture to control the infection.

foreskin circumcision are generally the requirements of the parents, there is little medical indications. The increased incidence of urinary tract infection in the baby boy without circumcision, often some of the people used to the indications as circumcision. Circumcision generally implemented under local anesthesia in the students during the first few days. But if so, the urethra shift, hypospadias or any other of the penis or glans deformity, surgery should be delayed. Because the foreskin may be in the future for plastic repair purposes. If you have hemophilia or other bleeding disorders, family history exists, or mother affect the clotting mechanism of long-acting drugs, such as anticoagulants or aspirin, surgery should be banned.

toxic erythema in the skin, the most common neonatal skin lesions, a benign self-limiting skin erythema can occur at any time within a week after birth, but most found the second day. Common in friction with clothes arm, legs, back, face rare. Rash erythematous, middle pimples, papules may be quite prominent, the the papules contents smear Wright stain eosinophils. Severe cases, you should be looking for a family history of allergies. If any family history of allergies, you should avoid using lotion, powder, soap and plastic.

subcutaneous fat necrosis can occur in the bony protrusions parts vulnerable to trauma or oppression, especially the head, cheek and neck during delivery using forceps site. The damage at the hard, isolate, clear boundaries. Damage may puncture the skin surface, out of the clear yellow sterile liquid necrosis Department can dissipate or dissipated use the pressure surface coil (pressue-doughnut) dressing.

normal newborn mild jaundice, but if within 24 hours after birth, or the concentration of serum bilirubinu003e 12mg/dl (> 205μmol/L) of the full-term children should be given attention (preterm children and other , the concentration of bilirubin in the lower level should be emphasis on neonatal discharged

voiding the first urine is concentrated, often contain urate can diapers dyed pink. within 24 hours after birth urination, should make a thorough check. to delay urination more common in boys, may be associated with phimosis, and just finished circumcision of postoperative the glans edema and swelling related.

defecation every baby should be discharged within 24 hours meconium. But meconium-stained infants at birth may be delayed defecation delay defecation the most common cause is a thick meconium embolism.

edit this paragraph mental health examination each people are very concerned about their health, both mental on or physiological, then, what is mental health? it is the person's internal psychological and external behavior of harmony, unity and good to adapt to the social environment of a state of mind. several indicators : a proper understanding of their own to face and accept the reality, have good interpersonal skills, love life, willing to learn and work, coordinated control their emotions, to maintain a good mood, healthy personality and psychological characteristics to meet the age special

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