2014年2月26日星期三

Self

: zì wǒ

edit this paragraph to explain basic interpretation

word: self (Ego)

phonetic [self; to oneself: emphasis on the consciousness of independent self-existence of the subject, both the awareness initiative

2. [ego]: with reality personality consciousness

3. popular terms: that is their own personality, preferences, viewpoints.

detailed explanation. refers to himself.

Qing Tan Sitong "rock song": "if the crisis of self-Chin Xiu, Zhuojiu to sprinkle Song Yoo 3

Qu Qiubai" Red Capital ":" was not only the development of self-personality, but also eliminate all prevent him from subjective difficulties ahead, flexion and extension freely, calm and comfortable. "

2 that own their own.

Mao Zedong "correctly handle contradictions among the people": "This education is self-education of the people, the method of criticism and self-criticism is the basic method of self-education."

3. assert themselves.

"anthology, Lu machine sequence:" Cardiff In my self, intellectual disabilities Utah infants and their tired, material of phase objects, insects are given this situation. "Lu Yan economic Note self that since said already is, phase material that objects are relative light. "Kiskiskis

4. Relative duality; dependency. Since Utah phase Q & A after Lotte body and mind of the

Song Su Shi" play book "Poetry:" Yuanming shaped God self, physically and mentally Lotte phase material. "Kiskiskis

edit this paragraph related to self-awareness correct understanding of yourself is not easy, a correct understanding yourself is very important. Because the people how to understand their own, they will do themselves, will to live by their recognized role.

However, the proper understanding of their own is not easy. example, the people of own appearance, is a complex process because people came from giving birth to die, they can not directly see their face can only vaguely see the tip of his nose, the awareness of the people about his own appearance indirect understanding from the surface of the water, mirrors, pictures and videos, but the image on the photo is not a true and his own appearance, also need to be conclusive evidence of others and their own inference, after practice and long-term thinking and analysis, in order to gradually form a stable correct understanding.

-year-old child, look in the mirror for the first time often do not know which the image in the mirror is their own, and some think it was funny, hand touch, and some thought it was another child in his smile, and some even because I do not know what things feel afraid. others told him the mirror which that child is you ", he is not very confident that by slowly observation the mirror mother and real mother is the same, and he will gradually through inference, confirm the mirror image of their own pupils

understanding of their own strengths and weaknesses much less, only adult understanding instead their own understanding, "my mother said to me to dinner to eat fast," the teacher said I write well written "understanding of others into their own understanding, the same should also have a lengthy process of repeated integration. On the one hand, the pupils through own hands, and gradually increase the awareness of their own. example, he often ran in front of others in the race, it will recognize themselves in the running advantage; carry a heavy load, he can lift others move does not move things, he will know his own strength .... On the other hand, pupils from all aspects of this case will get others evaluation (for example, after the first grade, on the basis of evaluation of the parents, but also to increase the teacher evaluation). evaluation, sometimes the same, similar, and sometimes different, even completely opposite.

from the hands-on, and a variety of others evaluation, especially conflicting evaluation will inspire children to think, prompted him to continue to compare analysis, reasoning and judgment, this is a tortuous and complicated process, through this process, he will be more objective self-awareness, but still can not guarantee that is correct. general self-understanding is correct, it depends on their own psychological quality and ambient conditions., some students mistakenly believe that their own stupid, some blindly believe that the result of his error evaluation of teachers or parents. visible understanding of their own will not be easy.

the content

constitutes itself all self-awareness.

understanding of the most basic material level: physical understanding of their own body, such as height, weight, hair length, skin black and white;

physiological levels: as appetite for good or bad, sweating how many heart speed, body fat, thin, strong or weak physique;

body activity: such as force size, run the speed level jump, throw distance ......

psychological understanding: such as emotional stability and ease of change in the long-term and fleeting memory, introverted or extroverted, the level of ability, temperament, type, etc.

until understanding of the social and cultural level: If love collective moral quality of care for others, ideals, outlook on life, values, knowledge accumulation, hobbies, habits, and so on.

composed of self-awareness that content and Western psychology says self-concept is the same. According to the research, 4,5 years old, 10 years old, adolescence is the fastest growing self-concept period of time, this period is how to guide students understand their own right, should be more careful, cautious, especially should attract the attention of educators.

to constraints

Although a wide range of self-awareness, but specific to each individual, and the depth of understanding the one hand, as a guest, exposure and show how the degree if not through a variety of tests, is not easy to found their own memory abilities; exchanges and others rarely can reach which level is always subject to two constraints. people, it is difficult to judge their own personality type; On the other hand, as the main, self-development of the central nervous system to the degree of maturity as a child of their own yet to understand the type of thinking, temperament characteristics, such as with the abstract nature quality primary and secondary school students, it is impossible to get to know their own pursuit of life. they neither asked the task, even if others have proposed, they can not go to the level of understanding of their own self-awareness correctly the premise

correct the premise of education, because what kind of self-awareness, and will push themselves how action; What kind of self-awareness will be on their own to match the requirements; the

people's power comes from the contradiction between the actual self and the ideal self real self, is their own if they know is incorrect, low self-esteem or pride, not a realistic objective basis for their own development, only the right of self-awareness, to the right to put forward their own requirements. so that the self-education to embark on the road of health.

a grade pupils in participating in an intelligence test, barrage of paper composed image of a horse, she tried not try hand push on said "I will not reason is that she is in a teachers and parents are often belittle her environment, very low self-esteem due to low self-esteem and underestimated their own, to give up time to exercise their own about their opportunities. At the same time, another primary school students of the same age, the face of this test, immediately said: "I can do it". was pieced together and then they nervously In fact, within the prescribed time, she did not complete the assembly, but she still does not would like to leave the loaded side of his mouth, "I can do it." after a student timeout to complete the task, but he has not only been a valuable exercise opportunities and, more importantly, she once again enhance the self-confidence.

self requirements ask of ourselves is an important part of the self-education, but the view from the author in 1996 survey on the ability of self-education of primary and middle school students in Beijing City, four links, currently the weakest ring self-requirements, that is, said most primary and secondary school students can verbally should do (self-evaluation), but also to know how (self-awareness), but the action is poor (self-practice), particularly noteworthy is that most do not want to do (requirements).

if not self requirements, four self-education can only be interrupted. upward spiral to promote self-education conducted first concern is self requirements of this ring.

formation motives

Engels said: "the individual said, all the power of his actions, certainly through his mind, must be transformed into the motives of his desire to make his action. "To carry out the activities of the self-education, they put forward their own self-education is the most critical part of a feel that they have the perfect student, and the students from that hopeless, the same will not truly self- education, although they have different views, but the inner essence is the same, that is from the wrong self-awareness, so the two seemingly opposite view, lead to the same results, that is no the desire and motivation of self-education.

the target

human and animal, before acting, will appear in the minds ahead of the appearance of, refers to the goal of self-education, here is a blueprint for the vision to establish. want to create an ideal more in line with the actual target, blueprint, vision and needs of their current situation, their own abilities and their own needs comprehensive grasp

For example, a middle school student in the class to feel left out, he's in a bad mood when he must own "needs" what is what, have a correct understanding of the fact he needs is "respect others" is a self-esteem needs; Secondly, he needs to be out in the cold status of a realistic analysis, whether because of their own paranoia, or others of arrogance, or own shortcomings caused; then a correct estimate of their own ability to solve this problem on this basis on to set an appropriate target: trouble in class, causing the attention of others;, or use the money to buy people; still fine to win trust; even, perhaps, some students just need to lift their suspicious, you can change the situation, to meet their own self-esteem needs.

scheme of arrangement

scheme of arrangement is the process of practice ahead of the appearance of self-education, which include the contents of the program of action steps, process management, methods and measures. By default, a practice process to achieve our goals.

for primary and secondary students, they may have some difficulty, but also as an inescapable If you do not step solid arrangements, self-education is likely to come to nothing because self-education is a need to personally grasp of practical activities. primary and middle school students there are not good at comprehensive planning, not good at meticulous preparations for the weakness of the objective situation they face often and ever-changing process how this contradiction resolved? proof of practical experience, If you have a long planning another short arrangements on the long-term goal of fundamentally guided students specific target, you can guarantee with plans to gradually achieve, it is possible to make the self-education of the students continue made stage effects, and enhance the confidence to move forward.

self practicing self-practice is the most critical part of the four areas of self-education, without this ring, self-education can only be a castle in the air of our history, intellectuals advocating self-cultivation , but a lot of people not only divorced from reality, it is divorced from the masses, and therefore tend to self-cultivation and become a far from real life "Bimensiguo, but also further develop in the face of the objective world," state without doing "sit in terms of channel" of bad habits, these also indirectly affect the child. this point in this particular, you want to pay attention to, not taken practice this step, self-education forever is an empty phrase.

self-supervision

strong self-education motivation, OK the goal of self-education and careful self-education plan must be put to the test in real practice, made the development of "practice makes perfect", "Practice is the standard of all truth" in the process of self-education. The same applies, but even more complex because this process is not only from external influence (such as the next TV came a lively program of sound, to invite students finish the job factors play football together) from internal encountered interference (such as their own lazy habits, the total can not be untied problems he was timid, etc.), will interfere with plans to implement to continue to monitor the process of self-practice appears to be judged , With access to see which had expected the design, a deviation, analysis of which is caused, how they solve to ......

younger children self-monitoring is difficult, their attention and thinking more outward, they often just to see others in violation of discipline, but can not be found also in violation of the discipline in order to help them, and some teachers or parents not only to take the necessary implication methods such as reminder sometimes in my mind, but also to teach them to form their own the appearance, in order to monitor their own (for example, suggested that they envisioned himself flew to the sky, look down in how to do their homework sight)

self control

discovered the problem through self-monitoring, some belonging to the outside world and no interference subjective there would be no effort to relax requirements for such bad habits, you can only use their own willpower to solve the course, persistence can only come from the right purpose, self-control and ideal for students, to pursue closely

Another situation is outside interference caused by the psychological conflict, do not stick to it (such as the lure of the next TV sound), it must be good to revive the hearts beautiful goal, once again strengthen their requirements, if any of the students placed on your desk will inspire your own maxims, aphorisms these practices, as long as the students voluntarily, the results will often be better.

more important students in a time of self-monitoring process will to get exercise, preliminary successful experience, improve self-confidence will continue to be sublimated desire to self-improvement.

the process of of self regulation

self-education and anything like encountered reality are often different from the expected, which need to be good at self-regulation in a timely manner.

adjustment issues, students are often two extreme performance: a stubbornly did not consider adjustments to the misconception that this is strong-willed best performance. past for generations have not invented a perpetual motion machine, dogged "poor man Contemporary thousands of" improper on writers, wasted step "confused people, when they works sent to paper mills in a sack a sack, and never think about their own whether they have when the writer's subjective and objective conditions, still stiff upper lip, a chapter written down and another is too lightly frequently with regulating his objective slightly obstacles in the process of self-practice, subjective slightly difficult, heavy Ta Kwu other opened an excuse for self-regulation to forgive willpower fatal weaknesses.

Under normal circumstances, it is best to emphasize "insist" things in a qualitative change, is often the most difficult period, "the darkest moment before dawn, many victories generate insist look into it for the cultivation of psychological quality without a fight, not as good as hard, if not all, can get some experience and lessons learned. course, when the situation has become quite obvious, to continue to stay here certainly to no avail when necessary courage to self-adjust in time, from another angle, jiliuyongtui willing to go back hit the brick wall, is also an exercise of the will.

self-evaluation if the self-education process likened to a spiral upward chain, then self-evaluation is of special significance, ring the ring will determine the process of self-education, into which one track into the next cycle. Joanne Hill,

Lei Feng's comrades-in-arms, eager to help others, to a being knocked down to send the elderly the hospital was hit by the elderly and their families, falsely accused, imposed on the perpetrators of the hat to Joanne Hill when Joanne Hill is bound to have a self-evaluation for their actions, and that rescue was framed "," well-intentioned not win the good "from all things, seems to do something stupid because he did not understand the current social reality, the results of such evaluation will certainly determined to never do such a stupid thing; Joanne Hill was is firmly with the noble communist ideology to evaluate it, would rather own wronged, still insist on doing so in the future, he believes that doing so is the need of the kind of social progress. visible, self-evaluation is bound to affect the self-education direction.

value of self-evaluation should be standard people whenever finish a job, will consciously or unconsciously, with the "value" of the ruler to measure the amount that is usually said is worthwhile? The complexity of the problem is that: This yardstick is not the same, not only for each individual with a ruler may be different, even if the same person, the ruler will change. "Values"

this ruler. Kiskiskis

Values is formed in the long-term practice of life, desire, motivation, interests, hobbies, emotions, emotional awareness of the value of the lower level, convictions, beliefs and ideals is the awareness of a higher level of value, after the systematic and theoretical this change, you become a great impact values ​​of the people.

for new power

self practice after practice object through their own efforts, you will see what has changed. bound to greatly affect their own understanding, not only affect the understanding of the objective world, but more important is the understanding of the impact of the subjective world of the little boy to a large stone to move away, his evaluation is Hercules; little girl a well done manually, her evaluation of their own to clever girl ", these will be growth in confidence, gain new momentum. early childhood goodies to the other children, has been the evaluation of the" good boy "a happy experience; pupils handwriting particularly neat, teacher awarded him a small red flower, he felt particularly glorious ...... Although these start all others indirectly evaluation, but will be further into his self-evaluation, continue to inspire his forward momentum

In contrast, indirect criticism of evaluation, but also will become a painful experience, transformed into his own, thus weakening his continued forward momentum. example, some students enthusiastically learning from Lei Feng to do good, back home, is: "What are the age, but also what to learn from Lei Feng, how I raised you so foolish" sarcasm. evaluation of this kind to others, so that students get a negative experience for young children often transformed into his own error evaluation, which changed his direction forward.

new understanding

the self-education process, on the one hand the value of awareness will affect the direction of self-education; On the other hand, self-practicing will affect the value consciousness, and further affect self-awareness, he re-understanding of their own. especially for immature students, this effect is extremely important, for example, some high school students in the class group, for collective honor, not dragging the hind legs of the collective, their efforts to make their grades up this purpose yet ambitious, the the understanding nor profound formed power driven learning does go up, but more important is that in this process, he tasted the sweetness of learning, mastery of knowledge and skills pleasant experience, needs to learn more, the formation of a new sense of value. evaluate their own awareness of this value, it will re-understanding of their own, find themselves in the past ideas and practices on issues, ashamed of the kind of mentality does not make progress on their own is no longer a "feel good about themselves," he will make new demands on their own, to embark on the path of a healthy self-education.

this process for the so-called underachiever change and development is more important.

Further reading: National psychological counselor vocational skills training tutorial review of information "-" General Psychology "as: http://www.mybetter.cn/wisdom/ziw.htm

2 http://www.psytopic.com/mag/post/924.html http://www.wm23.com

3 "to accept and choose" China Social Sciences Press in August the first edition

Open Category: social awareness of scientific psychology philosophical ontology

. the psychological term edit original meaning the

self

directory

concept concept real and study history

James "experience of self" and "pure ego"

Flores Freud the "I" and "self" and "super"

Rogers "real self" and "ideal self"

Mead's "guest" and "my lord"

Eriksson development of self-awareness the stage theory

philosophical self-structure

the Buddhist self

Tang Zhen self-concept

the structure of the self-consciousness to resolve resolve

existence

self-consciousness of the formation of self-awareness initiation period (to resolve

content physiological self the formation of the development period)

the self-conscious formation (formation and development of social self)

period of development of self-awareness (psychological self-formation and development of) self-conscious

perfect period of self-consciousness (self-consciousness of the same) features and functions

self-awareness during characteristics

self-awareness

five self-self-criticism to:

self-expression:

self-consciousness:

self-centered:

narcissism: the Self and low self inherent

high self-awareness

public self-awareness

self (self-awareness) how the formation of the first phase of the development:

second stage:

third stage:

the performance of self-awareness and self expand

edit this paragraph, the concept of the concept of real and historical self, also known as self-awareness or self-concept in psychology is mainly refers to individuals' awareness of their own existence, is the result of individual self-evaluation of its social role in our experience, aware of their own and different from the surrounding and other people, and this is self is self-awareness. mentioned here all refers to our body, our physical and psychological activities of birds self-awareness

the self-consciousness has been a psychology study an ancient hot topic, the fundamental psychology The question is "What is man." distinguished in ancient times, philosophers are not it can help people "self" and awareness activity area, such as Plato's "soul" to control the activities of the human body, the human consciousness, and controls the soul itself, the "self" real psychological sense of self-concept research from James began his "self" separate from the awareness activities in the area, the "self" concept introduced psychology. Since James 1890 introduction of self-concept psychology so far, the study of the psychology of the self-concept has several times the rise and fall before the advent of behaviorism, interested in the study of the psychology of the self-concept, but with the rise of behaviorism, self-concept Research is gradually neglected. later humanism Rogers, the self-concept has conducted in-depth research. 1980s, cognitive School study also attaches great importance to the self-concept. self-concept is widely concerned about their research, the application has been popularized in the study of self-concept, due to differences in the understanding of the view of human nature, and research orientation, a different understanding of the different schools of psychology.

Looking at the psychology of self-concept, individual either to get to know the main I (I) English identity and the transformation of the objective things at this time is in observation status, and to object (ie Me) in English identity awareness, transformation, this when I was in the observer status. seen, everyone is the main I (main) and the object of my (passenger and I) continuum. individuals themselves and their relations with the outside world things as object of knowledge, which involves .

self-awareness to the concept of self-consciousness and structure of individual understanding. Specifically, the self-consciousness is the individual's own awareness and understanding of the relationship of their own around the world, is aware of their own existence. understanding of their broadly include the following three aspects: First, individual understanding and evaluation of their physiological state. including their weight, height, build, looks, image and the gender awareness, as well as the body pain, hunger, fatigue, feeling and understanding of their own mental state and evaluation. mainly include the understanding and evaluation of their ability, knowledge, emotions, temperament, character, ideals, beliefs, interests, hobbies, etc.. understanding and evaluation of their relationship around. understanding of their own position in certain social relations, the role, as well as on their own relationships with others and evaluation.

the emergence of self-awareness, not awareness the object or consciousness content simple transfer , but the person's psychological development has entered a new stage, the results of individual socialization, mental activity form of human-specific it is not only so that people can understand and transform the objective world, but also able to understand and transform the subjective world Therefore, the psychological community classified personality-conditioning system of self-consciousness, as an integral part of the personality structure and become self-improvement personality psychological foundation.

James "experience of self" and "pure self" James (William James, 1842 -1910), American psychologist and a pioneer of the American pragmatist philosopher, he is the founder of the self-concept of "self" concept in his book, "The Principles of Psychology", "radical empiricism" a detailed exposition of James "self is owned by the individual body, the sum of the qualities, abilities, aspirations, family, work, property, friends, etc.", self-divided into the experience of self and pure. the experience of

"self" (the empirical self) that people may experience an object, that is, the existence of other objects coexist with the world., James said: "each person's experience of self, that is, he tried to use the 'I' (me) to call everything. James that the "I" and "me" is difficult to distinguish between his opposition to subordinate to my "things" real "distinguish between the self and the world, there is no obvious boundaries, my body, clothing, wife and children and property are self various relationships involved in self-composition. of self

experience of self is divided into self-material (material self), social self (social self) and the spirit of self (spiritual self) three components of social self- higher than the material self, spiritual self and higher than the social self

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