Chinese Name: Nebula Name: nebula definition: nebulous objects composed of gas and dust. Galaxies and clusters of celestial history, initially using the name had been clearly included. Applied sciences: astronomy (a subject); stars and the Milky Way (two subjects)
Nebula (Nebula) contains almost all of the planets and comets extended-type object. Their main component is hydrogen, followed by nitrogen, and further contains a certain proportion of metal elements and non-metallic elements. Recent studies have also found to contain organic molecules and other substances.
the gorgeous Nebula (40)
Pinyin: xīng yún
[nebula] constituted by a very thin gas or dust in interstellar space of our Milky Way and other galaxies, many great celestial one.
detailed explanation of the celestial
looks like cloudy. Outside the solar system within the Milky Way all non-stellar gas and dust clouds. Sun Li "show Lu set · IWC Confucianism Foreword:" Life is like space nebula as it is seamless, ever-changing and each other, reinforce each other. "He Jingzhi sing set · Dongfeng Miles": "infinite universe nebula toward us came the echo rang constantly. "Ai Qing" light hymn: "Every person is a life, is a grain of dust in the galactic nebula."
nebula (from Latin : of nebulae or nebulæ, with ligature or nebulas, meaning that cloud  pl.) dust, hydrogen, helium, and ionized gas gathering interstellar clouds. Originally astronomy on the common term for the spread of any astronomical celestial bodies, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way (past usage still remain, such as the Andromeda galaxy still Edwin Hubble discovered it before galaxies the name of the called Andromeda nebula). The nebula is usually the star formation regions, such as the Eagle Nebula. This nebula depicts NASA's most famous images: Pillars of Creation. Formed in the region of gas, dust and other material packed together, gathered a huge quality, which attract more quality, and finally large enough to form stars. It is understood that the remaining material can also form the planets and other celestial bodies of the planetary system.
the editing of this paragraph concept Nebula is a combination of gas and dust of interstellar space into a nebulous objects. The nebula material density is low, and take on Earth standards to measure, in some places is vacuum. However, the volume of the nebula is very large, often a radius of up to tens of light years. So, generally nebula than the sun heavy.
nebula's shape variety and state. Nebula and stars have a blood relationship. Ejected gas will become part of the nebula nebulosity in the the nebula
gravitational compression became a star. Under certain conditions, nebulae and star is able to transform into each other.
Initially all nebulous objects in the universe are called nebulae. Later, with the development of the telescope, the observation level of the people continue to improve, and only then, the original nebula is divided into three types of star clusters, galaxies and nebulae.
edit this paragraph morphological features morphological classification
on morphology, can be divided into: vast thin the amorphous diffuse nebula (irregular shape, the diameter of the nebula boundary up to tens of light years, weighing about 10 solar density in 10-100 atoms/cm3), the center of the bright ring with a high temperature core star planetary nebulae (planetary nebulae produce quality small and medium-like stellar explosions, the core of the white dwarf, disc-shaped or ring-shaped in outline, with faint extended nebula.), as well as under continuous spread around the supernova remaining substances Cloud (see supernova remnant). luminescence properties,
can be divided into: the center or near the high temperature according to the star (earlier than B1 type) excitation light emission nebula, due to reflection and scattering of low temperature according to the radiation of the star (late in the B1 type) light reflection nebula, partially or completely block the background stars, dark nebula (Orion Horsehead).
first two are collectively referred to as the bright nebula brightness changes called Variable Nebula. Reflection nebula with dark nebula difference only lies in the relative position according to stars, nebulae, and observations by the three different. the
of interstellar matter and the evolution of celestial bodies are closely linked. The observations confirm that the interstellar gas is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium, the two elements, which is the same with the star ingredients. People even suspect that stars form from interstellar gas "condensation" from. Interstellar dust is a small solid-state material ingredients include carbon compounds and oxides. distribution of interstellar matter in
space is not uniform. Gravitation, gas and dust in some places may be mutually attracted intensive form cloudy. Aptly called "nebulae". 10-100 atoms per cubic centimeter than the vacuum obtained in the laboratory (in fact this must much lower). They are mainly distributed in the vicinity of the galactic plane (HOTKEY). Diffuse nebula famous Orion Nebula, Horsehead Nebula.
planetary nebula looks a bit like a spit smoke ring, the center is empty, and tend to have a very bright star. The stellar constantly out projectile material, the formation of the nebula. Visible planetary nebula is the result of the evolution of the star in his later years. Famous Aquarius helix nebula and Lyra Ring Nebula.
edit the evening of August 28,
1758, nebulae, France astronomy enthusiasts named Messier in Sky Survey Search comet observations, suddenly found a cloudy patches no position changes between stars. Messier judging from experience, this piece of plaque morphology similar to the comet, but it is in no position change between the stellar, is clearly not a comet. What is the celestial it? Did not reveal the answer, Messier type (As of 1784, a total of 103) recorded in detail. In cloudy patches which first discovered the Taurus was listed as No. both M1 and M Messier name initials. Nebula
the Messier establish the the celestial bodies sequence, is still in use. His unknown celestial records (Messier the Star Table) published in 1781, caused the attention of the famous British astronomer William Herschel. After long-term observation of verification, Herschel These cloudy objects named Nebula. the
Since the early resolution of a telescope is not high enough, extragalactic and some clusters look was cloudy, so they also called Nebula. Hubble measured the distance Andromeda, confirmed some of the nebula is actually similar to our own Milky Way star system. Due to historical habits, an extragalactic are still sometimes called nebulae such as the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud, the Andromeda nebula.
this paragraph constitutes substance Eagle Nebula
when we mentioned the space, we tend to think that there is nothing, the darkness and the silence of the vacuum. In fact, this is not exactly right. The vast expanse of space between the stars may be silent, but far from being real "vacuum", but there are a variety of substances. These substances include interstellar gas, dust and particle flow, people called interstellar matter. The evolution of interstellar matter and Astrophysics in
closely linked. The observations confirm that the interstellar gas is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium, the two elements, which is the same with the star ingredients. In fact, the star is by interstellar gas condensation "from. Interstellar dust is a small solid-state material ingredients include carbon compounds and oxides. distribution of interstellar matter in
space is not uniform. Gravitation, gas and dust in some places may be mutually attracted intensive form cloudy. Aptly called "nebulae". According to the form, the Milky Way in the nebula can be divided into several diffuse nebulae, planetary nebulae.
compared with the stellar nebula has a large, bulky, quality and density. A common nebula mass of at least the equivalent of a thousand suns, a radius of about 10 light-years.
nebula often named according to their location or shape, for example: the Orion Nebula, Lyra Nebula
, edit this paragraph nebula types luminescence properties can be divided into:
launch the nebula
Dark the nebula
emission nebula emission nebula
emission nebula by the nearby hot stars of the amount of light excited to emit light, the ultraviolet light emitted by these stars will ionize the nebula of hydrogen (H II regions), so that light from them. Emission nebula radiation a different shade of free gas cloud (ie, plasma). The cause of the free radiation from high-energy photons from nearby stars. Some types of these different emission nebula is hydrogen II area, which is the place of birth of the young stars, the massive stars photons is caused by the source of the free; planetary nebula is a dying star throws to the shell is exposed to high heat core heating free.
nebula's color depends on the chemical composition and the amount of free, because most of the interstellar gas are relatively under as long as the lower energy will be able to free hydrogen, many emission nebulae are red. If there is a higher energy can cause the other elements of the free, then the green and blue clouds are likely to occur. Through the study of the nebular spectrum, astronomers can infer the chemical elements in the nebula. Most of the emission nebula has a 90% hydrogen, and the remaining part is helium, oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements. the
In the Northern Hemisphere, the most famous emission nebula in Cygnus, the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), and reticular Nebula (NGC 6960/6992); look best in the southern hemisphere is in the constellation Sagittarius Lagoon Nebula M8/NGC 6523, and Orion Orion Nebula (M42). Further south in the southern hemisphere is bright Kalina Nebula (NGC 3372).
Horsehead emission nebula
, nebula often have dark spots, dust clouds block the light caused. The combination of emission nebulae and dust often cause some looks interesting celestial Many celestial bodies are vivid metaphor name, such as the North America Nebula and Cone Nebula.
some nebula is a reflection nebula emission nebula together, such as the Trifid Nebula.
reflection nebula reflection nebula by the reflected light of nearby stars and light blue. show red process
[due to the scattering of blue light than red light more efficiently (and the sky appears blue and sunset the same), so the reflection nebulae are usually blue]
astronomy perspective, reflection nebula is composed by the dust mere reflection of nearby stars or clusters of light clouds. Not enough heat to these nearby star clouds as light as a result is ionized emission nebula, but enough brightness allows dust particles scatter light seen. Therefore, the frequency spectrum of the reflection nebula shows brighten his star.
dark nebula gas and dust nebulae near the bright nebula
star, nebula will be dark, is the dark nebula. Dark nebula because it is neither light-emitting no light for it to reflection, but the absorption and scattering of light from behind it, in dense stellar galaxy and the bright diffuse nebula backdrop.
the dark nebula density is sufficient to shield light from the background emission nebulae or reflection nebula (Horsehead Nebula), or masking the background stars. Extinction astronomy usually from large molecular clouds within the lowest temperature, most of the highest density of interstellar dust particles. Large and complex dark nebula polymer is often linked with the giant molecular clouds, small and lonely dark nebulae are called Bok globule.
formation of these dark nebulae are usually no rules to follow: the appearance and the border, sometimes they are not clearly defined in the formation of a complex of serpentine shape. Huge dark nebulae visible to the unaided eye, showing a dark patch in the bright galaxy. Occurred within the dark nebula places of important events, such as the formation of stars. can be divided the
to form of divided to:
the diffuse nebula
diffuse nebula diffuse nebula like its name, there is no clear boundary, often rendered as irregular shape, as if the sky clouds, but they generally have to use a telescope to observed only astrophotocamera long exposure to show their beauty. Their diameter is about tens of light-years, the average density of 10-100 atoms per cubic centimeter of vacuum (in fact, than the laboratory is much lower). They are mainly distributed in the vicinity of the galactic plane (HOTKEY). Diffuse nebula famous Orion Nebula, Horsehead Nebula. Diffuse nebula interstellar medium is concentrated in one or a few bright stars around the bright nebula, these bright stars are formed near young stars.
planetary nebula planetary nebula were round, flat circular or ring, some with giant planets very similar, hence the name, but do not have any contact and planets. Not all planetary nebulae are cylindrical surface, the shape of some planetary nebulae is very unique, as in Vulpecula M27 Dumbbell Nebula and Perseus in M76 Little Dumbbell Nebula, etc..
look a bit like a spit smoke ring, the center is empty, and tend to have a very bright stars in a row the nebula's central star, known as the central stars of planetary nebulae are stars evolve into white dwarfs. Central star repeatedly assured the projectile material, the formation of the nebula. Visible planetary nebula is the result of the evolution of stellar in his later years, they are such the sun almost Quality stellar evolution to the late, after the cessation of the nuclear reaction, to the death of the product. Famous Aquarius helix nebula and Lyra Ring Nebula, such Nebula diffuse nebula is completely different in nature, the volume of such nebulae in the ever-expanding, and finally tends to dissipate. Planetary nebulae "life" is very short, usually gas shell will be tens of thousands of years will gradually disappear.
supernova remnant supernova remnant is a class Nebula diffuse nebula nature completely different, they are thrown out of gas after the supernova explosion formed. Planetary nebulae, such nebula volume expansion is also among the last also tends to dissipate.
most famous supernova remnant is gold constellation in the Crab Nebula. It is the ruins left by a supernova in the 1054 outbreak of the Milky Way. In this nebula central government has found a neutron star, but because of the volume is very small neutron star, with optical telescopes can not see. It is because it has a pulse of radio wave radiation and found that, in theory, identified as neutron stars.
characteristics of the bipolar nebula bipolar nebula is unique lobe form the axis of symmetry of the nebula. The the bipolar nebula
many, but not all, of the planetary nebula observations show a double set of structures. This may be directly related to two types of nebula in the development of the nebula is a before or will replace another.
do not know the form of the exact causes of the nebula, it is a physical process called bipolar slip that the star of the high-energy particles thrown jet outward from the poles. One theory is that the effluent will surround the material around the star collision (probably interstellar dust, or in the the earlier supernova events surrounding the shell around).
other classification nebula is the birthplace of stars, nebulae of dust in the gravitational gradually collapses into new stars, such as the M42 Orion Nebula
also plenty of the wreckage of the old stellar explosions, such as Cygnus mesh nebula. the
edit this paragraph nebulae and galaxies, nebulae
due to the limitations of observational tools, the history of galaxies and nebulae confused. Galaxies word derived from the Greek galaxias (γαλαξ? Α?), Generalized by countless star systems (including of course the stellar autologous), dust (nebula) running system. Refers to the reference to our own Milky Way, is a stellar, gas of interstellar matter, cosmic dust, and dark matter, and by the massive gravitationally bound system. Typical galaxy, from only a few million (107) stars in dwarf galaxies to a trillion (1012) stars in elliptical galaxies, all around the center of mass of operation. In addition to individual stars and interstellar matter thin, most of the galaxies have a large number of multi-star systems, star clusters, and various nebula.
history, galaxies classification basis of their shape (often referred to in their visual shape). The most common is the elliptical galaxy, has a bright appearance of the elliptical shape; spiral galaxy is a disc shape, bending dust spiral arms; irregular shape or abnormal, are usually subject to the result of the impact of the adjacent other galaxies. Interaction of neighboring galaxies, may lead to the merger of galaxies, or caused by stellar generation, the so-called starburst galaxy. The lack of methodical structure of small galaxies will be referred to as irregular galaxies.
can be seen in the observable universe, the galaxies, the total is likely to exceed more than a hundred billion (1011). Most galaxies diameter ranged from 1,000 to 100,000  parsecs, the distance from each other is the magnitude of Mpc. Intergalactic space (space) exists between galaxies filled with very thin plasma, the average density of less than one atom per cubic meter. Most galaxies are organized into a larger group, a galaxy group or group, they are gathered into larger super clusters of galaxies. These larger group often referred to as flakes or fibers around the around the huge hole in the universe.
Although our understanding of dark matter is small, but in most of the galaxy, it occupies about 90% of the mass. The observational data show that the overweight black hole exists at the core of the galaxy, if not all, also accounted for the vast majority, they are considered to be the main source of some of the galaxies with active core. Where the galaxies of the Milky Way, the Earth and the solar system, looks at the core in at least hide such objects. edit this paragraph nebulae and star transformed reflection
nebula of material density is very thin, the main ingredient is hydrogen. According to theoretical calculations, the nebula density exceeds a certain limit, it is necessary to shrink under the force of gravity, smaller size, and gradually gathered the group. Is generally believed that the stars is the nebula in the course of the campaign, the force of gravity, shrinkage, aggregation, evolved. Star formation, but also a large number of projectile material into interstellar space, becoming part of the nebula of raw materials. So, the stars and nebulae, under certain conditions, can be transformed into each other. The stars also have their own history of life, from birth, growth to aging and eventually dying. They are different sizes, different colors, different course of evolution. The stellar life contact not only the performance of it provides light and heat. Actually heavy atoms constitute the substance of the planet and life is created by the outbreak of the process at the end of some stellar life.
edit this paragraph Eye of God Eye of God Nebula Intriguing
2009 years in Beijing on February 26, According to the British "Daily Telegraph" reported that the European astronomers has taken from the vastness of space to the seemingly intently "cosmic eye" spectacular photos, and called it the "Eye of God".
can see from the pictures, the pupil of the blue and white eye surrounded by flesh-colored eyelids with our eyes like, but the "Eye of God" is actually boundless, it gives off light from one side to the other side two and a half time. This object is located in the the Aquarius center of a dim stellar gas and dust blowing from a shell. Solar system 5 billion years in the future will also suffer the same fate.
"Eye of God" is 700 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Aquarius fact, amateur astronomers through a small telescope can vaguely see it, they called spiral nebulae (Helix Nebula), covering the area of the sky roughly equivalent to a a quarter of the full moon. This rare, spectacular photos taken by the erection of a giant telescope of the European Southern Observatory in Chi Lila Sylla Peak. The photo is so clear, we can even see distant galaxies in the central "eyes". - "God lip
God's lips nebula the
the international online Zhuangao: According to the" Daily Mail "reported that NASA recently photographed a twilight star formation in the nebula image, the nebula's shape resembles pursed up and ready to kiss lips.
the Fengyun being the decline of stellar Carina V385 16000 light years from Earth, is one of the largest objects in the Milky Way. The quality is 35 times that of the sun, the brightness of the sun more than 100 million times, burn rapidly after entering the twilight the internal substances are released from the formation of the nebula. infrared detectors
NASA WAN recently photographed an infrared photo display, V385 formed Carina nebula resembles a huge lips pursed together, as if the universe is kissing a human.
. Atlas of the
the References 1. Kiss of the universe: NASA photographed image of the nebula resembles lips (Photos) the
open Category: the Buddhism, universe, astronomy, computer, celestial
2 science fiction world of magazine publishing from book editing original meaning items
nebula "nebulae" are introduced from time to time by the sci-fi world magazine published some excellent original full-length science fiction books. Nebula series of books have been published until 2012, including the first Challenger and later numbered nine, respectively, as follows, contains articles and of parentheses. nebula series cover picture in
nebula: "Nebula · Challenger"  (brush with the hot sun - Yang Daoyong valley back sound - Tang wind, desert adherents - pay the MAK paper spaceship - Yano thoroughly, the driving force behind - James Gunn);
Nebula: "Nebula I Heaven" (God willing - Qian Embry);,
Nebula 2: "nebula Ⅱ · ball lightning" ( the the ball lightning - Liu Cixin);
Nebula 3: "Nebula III the · gene war" (gene war - DHEW, fly and fly - Hu Xing, memories Socrates - Yanggui Fu);
Nebula 4: "Nebula IV · dark pupil "(dark pupil - Catalpa sail Anonymous - fly deuterium, the die long journey - July);
Nebula 5:" Nebula Ⅴ · Grand Nightingale No. 5 "(Grand Nightingale No. 5 - - Wu Bute Sichuan);
nebula, 6: "nebula Ⅵ · dropped" (dropped - Lara);
Nebula: the nebula Ⅶ · planet past (the universe adventure planet past - Jiang Bo, Xinghai depths, - Jonathan Sherwood, the shoulders of giants - Robert Sawyer, the next scene of the 17th tower - Jiang Bo, the criminals in the mirror - wheat, till we meet again - Stephen Baxter, mysterious past Catcher in the Chinese prince - long tongs, romance, ray gun: a love story - James Gardner);
nebulae 8: the "Nebula of Ⅷ · Culler Damian graveyard" (Culler Damian graveyard - late flowers);
nebula The 9: the nebula Ⅸ · the RTHK's sci-fi album "(gardener - Amy promise, the excess of the world - Chang's darling - night through purple)
entries Atlas Atlas
References 1. "The nebula Challenger" Introduction and book reviews. The watercress reading [the reference date 2013-03-3].
Open Category: science fiction
3. the China "nebula" high-performance computer editing original meaning items
nebula and the dawn of the nebula is synonymous, have been consolidated.
dawn of the nebula Wikipedia card
the Shuguang Nebula high-performance computer systems
first measured performance of China's self-developed ultra-petaflop supercomputer, which is the third of its kind in the world's computers. Computer called "Nebula" by Dawning Information Industry (Beijing) Co., Ltd., the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Computing Technology, the National Supercomputing Center in Shenzhen jointly developed supercomputer owns part of the independent intellectual property rights in China. June 1, 2010, the supercomputer was officially unveiled in Beijing. May 31, 2010 in the top 500 of the world's fastest supercomputer ranking, "Nebula" supercomputer system after many experts evaluation itself in second position, surpassing the similar products in Europe and Japan, and its The speed of operation is 1270000000000000 times per second. Chinese history, the best ranking in the global supercomputer.
nebula About the leading independent innovation, industrial competitiveness the Shenzhen center of
edit this paragraph nebula About seemingly regularity and forward the unity of the historical trend of China's high-performance industry is struggling with unprecedented gesture ahead. The dawn of nebulae computer system
experienced a breakthrough baptism ten trillion times one hundred trillion times supercomputing capacity, high-performance computer industry in China ushered in the spring with ultra-petaflop supercomputer technology independent industrialization for the high-performance industry in China in terms of the year June 1,
2010 is worth bearing in mind the day, China's first measured performance, ultra-petaflop supercomputer - the dawn of "nebula" high-performance computer systems at the Beijing National Convention Center officially released over a petaflop of computing power once again set a maximum speed of Chinese high-performance computing. Ranked second in Germany time announced on May 31, 2010, the 35th TOP500 list of supercomputers in the world, the best results, creating a global ranking of high-performance computers. Achievements beyond the Milky Way One "on November 14, 2010. International super computer organization announced on June 18, 2012 in the latest Global 500 list of supercomputer, "Nebula" supercomputer ranked tenth.
edit the various leading Dawning "Nebula" is the support of the major projects of the national "863" plan by Dawning Information Industry (Beijing) Co., Ltd., the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Computing Technology, National Supercomputing Center in Shenzhen jointly developed by dawn The Group's industrial base in Tianjin manufacturing of a super 1000000000000000 supercomputer with independent intellectual property rights; China's first measured performance super petaflop supercomputer, its per second system peak 3000000000000000 (3PFlops) , the measured the Linpack value of 1,271,000,000,000,000 per second.
at the press conference, the dawn of the R & D center, general manager Shao were "Nebula" based on independent research and development "sophomore technical highlights:
1, high-performance. "Nebula" system measured peak 1271000000000000 times per second (1271000000000000 instructions executed per second), making it the first Asia and China, the world's third-measured performance ultra-petaflop supercomputer.
2, high performance. HPP architecture independent design, efficient heterogeneous collaborative computing technology, efficient and easy-to-use programming environment, a great user operation applications.
3, high reliability. The fully redundant design, no single point of failure, "nebula" demonstrated its high stability and reliability test on supercomputer system Linpack (international standard test method).
4, high density. "Nebula" single cabinet peak as high as 25 in the draw single cabinet testing,